Ontario government scraps plan for $3.8 billion in renewable energy projects – Is this a harbinger of things to come?


The move will keep $2.45 from going on the average homeowner’s monthly hydro bill.

Ontario is blowing off plans for more wind and solar power as it feels the heat over high electricity bills less than two years before a provincial election.

In its latest effort to curb prices, Premier Kathleen Wynne’s government is axing plans to sign another $3.8 billion in renewable energy contracts, Energy Minister Glenn Thibeault said Tuesday.

The move — which the Progressive Conservatives have demanded for years — will prevent $2.45 from being added to the average homeowner’s monthly hydro bill in the coming years.

Thibeault called it a “common sense” decision after the province’s electricity planning agency recently advised there is no “urgent need” for additional supply given Ontario’s surplus of generating capacity.

“I’ve been tasked to find ways to bring bills down,” said Thibeault, who was appointed minister last June. “When our experts said we didn’t need it, that’s when I acted.”

There may be more measures to come, Thibeault hinted in a speech prepared for the Ontario Energy Association on Tuesday night.

He pledged to “take a prudent look at every policy decision that has been made and determine if there is work we can do to reduce costs to Ontarians.”

The projects scrapped Tuesday would have created up to 1,000 megawatts of power, just under one-third of the 3,500 megawatts the four-unit Darlington nuclear power station produces near Oshawa.


Progressive Conservative Leader Patrick Brown called the suspension “too little, too late” while former Liberal energy minister George Smitherman and environmentalists suggested the government should have taken aim at costly nuclear refurbishments.

“Ontario had a choice to look forward but it chose to look backwards,” Smitherman said in a statement.

“The cancellation of the Large Renewable Procurement (LRP II) program makes it a scapegoat for pricing when the real culprit for oversupply is the aging Pickering nuclear plant.”

Ontario is planning to keep Pickering open until 2024 to provide electricity while it spends $12.8 billion refurbishing Darlington.

Green Party Leader Mike Schreiner said “the Liberals have chosen the wrong target,” echoing comments from the David Suzuki Foundation and Environmental Defence that the renewable cancellation is “short-sighted.”

“If you’re concerned about cost, you do more renewables and less nuclear,” said Gideon Forman from the foundation, noting the suspension will cost jobs in the green energy sector.

The Canadian Wind Energy Association warned cancelling the renewables will make it harder for Ontario to meet its greenhouse gas reduction targets in the battle against climate change.

Thibeault insisted the government is not “backtracking” on green energy because previously signed renewable contracts will go ahead in the province, eventually providing 18,000 megawatts of green energy. He said 90 per cent of generation, including nuclear, is emissions-free.Renewable Energy Pix

Sixteen projects — five wind, seven solar and four hydroelectric — approved last winter are proceeding and expected to create 455 megawatts of generating capacity.

That means ratepayers will still be on the hook for “energy we don’t need,” said Brown.

“They’ve made a huge mistake on the energy file . . . bills are still going to go up.”

NDP Leader Andrea Horwath blamed increasing privatization of the electricity system for steadily rising prices in the last decade, leaving Ontarians “paying the freight.”

The Liberal government, lagging in the polls, announced in its throne speech two weeks ago that the 8 per cent provincial tax on electricity will come off bills starting in January.

Many rural homeowners who face high delivery charges for hydro will also see 20 per cent savings, and 1,000 more companies will be able to take advantage of a program that allows them to shift hydro use away from periods of peak demand in return for lower prices.

That’s in addition to a hydro subsidy plan for low-income residents called the Ontario Electricity Support Program already in place.

Wynne and her MPPs were shadowed by wind farm protesters last week at the International Plowing Match and booed over hydro prices by some in attendance.

Thibeault downplayed the hostile reception.

“I was booed as a politician before. It’s something that comes with the job, right? My previous experience as a hockey referee helped me with the boos,” Thibeault told reporters Tuesday.

Also Tuesday, the provincial Financial Accountability Office released a report that found households in Toronto and Niagara typically spend the least on home energy costs and confirmed that northern Ontario residents spend the most, with low-income families facing the highest burden.

We want to know what YOU think. Is a “practical” decision like this, based on “which way the political wind is blowing” (pardon the pun) make sense in the short term? Long term? Leave us your Comments. We always like hearing from you! – Team GNT

St. Mary’s College Maryland: New research puts us closer to DIY Spray-on Solar Cell Technology

This Technology Announcement appeared in our Blog One Year ago. Find out where they are today. – Team GNT

Follow This Link: https://sites.google.com/a/smcm.edu/townsend-research-group/

Great Things from Small Things .. Nanotechnology Innovation

St Mary Spray on Solar 150928083119_1_540x360A new study out of St. Mary’s College of Maryland puts us closer to do-it-yourself spray-on solar cell technology — promising third-generation solar cells utilizing a nanocrystal ink deposition that could make traditional expensive silicon-based solar panels a thing of the past.

In a 2014 study, published in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, St. Mary’s College of Maryland energy expert Professor Troy Townsend introduced the first fully solution-processed all-inorganic photovoltaic technology.

While progress on organic thin-film photovoltaics is rapidly growing, inorganic devices still hold the record for highest efficiencies which is in part due to their broad spectral absorption and excellent electronic properties. Considering the recorded higher efficiencies and lower cost per watt compared to organic devices, combined with the enhanced thermal and photo stability of bulk-scale inorganic materials, Townsend, in his 2014 study, focused on an all-inorganic based structure for fabrication of a top to bottom fully…

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(Cadmium) Telluride Promising Alternative to Silicon: Crystalline fault lines provide pathway for solar cell current (w/video) [U Conn and Brookhaven NL]


** From Brookhaven National Laboratory & Nanowerk  

A team of scientists studying solar cells made from cadmium telluride, a promising alternative to silicon, has discovered that microscopic “fault lines” within and between crystals of the material act as conductive pathways that ease the flow of electric current. This research—conducted at the University of Connecticut and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, and described in the journal Nature Energy (“Charge transport in CdTe solar cells revealed by conductive tomographic atomic force microscopy”), may help explain how a common processing technique turns cadmium telluride into an excellent material for transforming sunlight into electricity, and suggests a strategy for engineering more efficient solar devices that surpass the performance of silicon.

“If you look at semiconductors like silicon, defects in the crystals are usually bad,” said co-author Eric Stach, a physicist at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). As Stach explained, misplaced atoms or slight shifts in their alignment often act as traps for the particles that carry electric current—negatively charged electrons or the positively charged “holes” left behind when electrons are knocked loose by photons of sunlight, making them more mobile. The idea behind solar cells is to separate the positive and negative charges and run them through a circuit so the current can be used to power houses, satellites, or even cities. Defects interrupt this flow of charges and keep the solar cell from being as efficient as it could be.
But in the case of cadmium telluride, the scientists found that boundaries between individual crystals and “planar defects”—fault-like misalignments in the arrangement of atoms—create pathways for conductivity, not traps.
These CTAFM images show a cadmium telluride solar cell from the top (above) and side profile (bottom) with bright spots representing areas of higher electron conductivity. The images reveal that the conductive pathways coincide with crystal grain boundaries. (Image: University of Connecticut)

Members of Bryan Huey’s group at the Institute of Materials Science at the University of Connecticut were the first to notice the surprising connection. In an effort to understand the effects of a chloride solution treatment that greatly enhances cadmium telluride’s conductive properties, Justin Luria and Yasemin Kutes studied solar cells before and after treatment. But they did so in a unique way.

Several groups around the world had looked at the surfaces of such solar cells before, often with a tool known as a conducting atomic force microscope. The microscope has a fine probe many times sharper than the head of a pin that scans across the material’s surface to track the topographic features—the hills and valleys of the surface structure—while simultaneously measuring location-specific conductivity. Scientists use this technique to explore how the surface features relate to solar cell performance at the nanoscale.
But no one had devised a way to make measurements beneath the surface, the most important part of the solar cell. This is where the UConn team made an important breakthrough. They used an approach developed and perfected by Kutes and Luria over the last two years to acquire hundreds of sequential images, each time intentionally removing a nanoscale layer of the material, so they could scan through the entire thickness of the sample. They then used these layer-by-layer images to build up a three-dimensional, high-resolution ‘tomographic’ map of the solar cell—somewhat like a computed tomography (CT) brain scan.
Assembling the layer-by-layer CTAFM scans into a side-profile video file reveals the relationship between conductivity and planar defects throughout the entire thickness of the cadmium telluride crystal, including how the defects appear to line up to form continuous pathways of conductivity. (Video: University of Connecticut)


“Everyone using these microscopes basically takes pictures of the ‘ground,’ and interprets what is beneath,” Huey said. “It may look like there’s a cave, or a rock shelf, or a building foundation down there. But we can only really know once we carefully dig, like archeologists, keeping track of exactly what we find every step of the way—though, of course, at a much, much smaller scale.”
The resulting CT-AFM maps uniquely revealed current flowing most freely along the crystal boundaries and fault-like defects in the cadmium telluride solar cells. The samples that had been treated with the chloride solution had more defects overall, a higher density of these defects, and what appeared to be a high degree of connectivity among them, while the untreated samples had few defects, no evidence of connectivity, and much lower conductivity.
Huey’s team suspected that the defects were so-called planar defects, usually caused by shifts in atomic alignments or stacking arrangements within the crystals. But the CTAFM system is not designed to reveal such atomic-scale structural details. To get that information, the UConn team turned to Stach, head of the electron microscopy group at the CFN, a DOE Office of Science User Facility.
“Having previously shared ideas with Eric, it was a natural extension of our discovery to work with his group,” Huey said.
Said Stach, “This is the exact type of problem the CFN is set up to handle, providing expertise and equipment that university researchers may not have to help drive science from hypothesis to discovery.”
CFN staff physicist Lihua Zhang used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UConn’s results as a guide to meticulously study how atomic scale features of chloride-treated cadmium telluride related to the conductivity maps. The TEM images revealed the atomic structure of the defects, confirming that they were due to specific changes in the stacking sequence of atoms in the material. The images also showed clearly that these planar defects connected different grains in the crystal, leading to high-conductivity pathways for the movement of electrons and holes.
“When we looked at the regions with good conductivity, the planar defects linked from one crystal grain to another, forming continuous pathways of conductance through the entire thickness of the material,” said Zhang. “So the regions that had the best conductivity were the ones that had a high degree of connectivity among these defects.”
stacking pattern of individual atoms
These transmission electron microscopy images taken at Brookhaven’s CFN reveals how the stacking pattern of individual atoms (bright spots) shifts. The images confirmed that the bright spots of high conductivity observed with CTAFM imaging at UConn occurred at the interfaces between two different atomic alignments (left) and that these “planar defects” were continuous between individual crystals, creating pathways of conductivity (right). The labels WZ and ZB refer to the two atomic stacking sequences “wurtzite” and “zinc blende,” which are the two types of crystal structures cadmium telluride can form. (click on image to enlarge)

The authors say it’s possible that the chloride treatment helps to create the connectivity, not just more defects, but that more research is needed to definitively determine the most significant effects of the chloride solution treatment.

In any case, Stach says that combining the CTAFM technique and electron microscopy, yields a “clear winner” in the search for more efficient, cost-competitive alternatives to silicon solar cells, which have nearly reached their limit for efficiency.
“There is already a billion-dollar-a-year industry making cadmium telluride solar cells, and lots of work exploring other alternatives to silicon. But all of these alternatives, because of their crystal structure, have a higher tendency to form defects,” he said. “This work gives us a systematic method we can use to understand if the defects are good or bad in terms of conductivity. It can also be used to explore the effects of different processing methods or chemicals to control how defects form. In the case of cadmium telluride, we may want to find ways to make more of these defects, or look for other materials in which defects improve performance.”
Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory


MIT: Powering up graphene implants without frying cells ~ For the Next Generation of Implants


This computational illustration shows a graphene network structure below a layer of water.

Image: Zhao Qin

New analysis finds way to safely conduct heat from graphene to biological tissues.

In the future, our health may be monitored and maintained by tiny sensors and drug dispensers, deployed within the body and made from graphene — one of the strongest, lightest materials in the world. Graphene is composed of a single sheet of carbon atoms, linked together like razor-thin chicken wire, and its properties may be tuned in countless ways, making it a versatile material for tiny, next-generation implants.

But graphene is incredibly stiff, whereas biological tissue is soft. Because of this, any power applied to operate a graphene implant could precipitously heat up and fry surrounding cells.

Now, engineers from MIT and Tsinghua University in Beijing have precisely simulated how electrical power may generate heat between a single layer of graphene and a simple cell membrane. While direct contact between the two layers inevitably overheats and kills the cell, the researchers found they could prevent this effect with a very thin, in-between layer of water.

By tuning the thickness of this intermediate water layer, the researchers could carefully control the amount of heat transferred between graphene and biological tissue. They also identified the critical power to apply to the graphene layer, without frying the cell membrane. The results are published today in the journal Nature Communications.

Co-author Zhao Qin, a research scientist in MIT’s Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE), says the team’s simulations may help guide the development of graphene implants and their optimal power requirements.

“We’ve provided a lot of insight, like what’s the critical power we can accept that will not fry the cell,” Qin says. “But sometimes we might want to intentionally increase the temperature, because for some biomedical applications, we want to kill cells like cancer cells. This work can also be used as guidance [for those efforts.]”

Qin’s co-authors include Markus Buehler, head of CEE and the McAfee Professor of Engineering, along with Yanlei Wang and Zhiping Xu of Tsinghua University.

Sandwich model

Typically, heat travels between two materials via vibrations in each material’s atoms. These atoms are always vibrating, at frequencies that depend on the properties of their materials. As a surface heats up, its atoms vibrate even more, causing collisions with other atoms and transferring heat in the process.

The researchers sought to accurately characterize the way heat travels, at the level of individual atoms, between graphene and biological tissue. To do this, they considered the simplest interface, comprising a small, 500-nanometer-square sheet of graphene and a simple cell membrane, separated by a thin layer of water.

mit-graphene-ii-shutterstock_62457640-610x406“In the body, water is everywhere, and the outer surface of membranes will always like to interact with water, so you cannot totally remove it,” Qin says. “So we came up with a sandwich model for graphene, water, and membrane, that is a crystal clear system for seeing the thermal conductance between these two materials.”

Qin’s colleagues at Tsinghua University had previously developed a model to precisely simulate the interactions between atoms in graphene and water, using density functional theory — a computational modeling technique that considers the structure of an atom’s electrons in determining how that atom will interact with other atoms.

However, to apply this modeling technique to the group’s sandwich model, which comprised about half a million atoms, would have required an incredible amount of computational power. Instead, Qin and his colleagues used classical molecular dynamics — a mathematical technique based on a “force field” potential function, or a simplified version of the interactions between atoms — that enabled them to efficiently calculate interactions within larger atomic systems.

The researchers then built an atom-level sandwich model of graphene, water, and a cell membrane, based on the group’s simplified force field. They carried out molecular dynamics simulations in which they changed the amount of power applied to the graphene, as well as the thickness of the intermediate water layer, and observed the amount of heat that carried over from the graphene to the cell membrane.

Watery crystals

Because the stiffness of graphene and biological tissue is so different, Qin and his colleagues expected that heat would conduct rather poorly between the two materials, building up steeply in the graphene before flooding and overheating the cell membrane. However, the intermediate water layer helped dissipate this heat, easing its conduction and preventing a temperature spike in the cell membrane.

Looking more closely at the interactions within this interface, the researchers made a surprising discovery: Within the sandwich model, the water, pressed against graphene’s chicken-wire pattern, morphed into a similar crystal-like structure.

“Graphene’s lattice acts like a template to guide the water to form network structures,” Qin explains. “The water acts more like a solid material and makes the stiffness transition from graphene and membrane less abrupt. We think this helps heat to conduct from graphene to the membrane side.”

The group varied the thickness of the intermediate water layer in simulations, and found that a 1-nanometer-wide layer of water helped to dissipate heat very effectively. In terms of the power applied to the system, they calculated that about a megawatt of power per meter squared, applied in tiny, microsecond bursts, was the most power that could be applied to the interface without overheating the cell membrane.

Qin says going forward, implant designers can use the group’s model and simulations to determine the critical power requirements for graphene devices of different dimensions. As for how they might practically control the thickness of the intermediate water layer, he says graphene’s surface may be modified to attract a particular number of water molecules. mit_logo

“I think graphene provides a very promising candidate for implantable devices,” Qin says. “Our calculations can provide knowledge for designing these devices in the future, for specific applications, like sensors, monitors, and other biomedical applications.”

This research was supported in part by the MIT International Science and Technology Initiative (MISTI): MIT-China Seed Fund, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, DARPA, the Department of Defense (DoD) Office of Naval Research, the DoD Multidisciplinary Research Initiatives program, the MIT Energy Initiative, and the National Science Foundation.

Which Country is the ‘greenest-happiest’ country on earth?

A Costa Rican farmer sells his freshly harvested tomatoes along the side of the road near San Jose.

Image: REUTERS/Juan Carlos Ulate

World Economic Forum

It’s not in Scandinavia. It’s not even in the West

Is life on this planet getting better? When it comes to the progress of nations, how do you measure what matters most? There’s wealth, there’s health, there’s basic human freedoms. 
These criteria, and others, make regular appearances in a variety of international rankings, from the Better Life Index to the Sustainable Economic Development Assessment and the World Happiness Report.

But a new study takes a different approach. The Happy Planet Index, which has just published its 2016 edition, measures health and happiness not in isolation but against a crucial new gold standard for success: sustainability.

The formula goes something like this: take the well-being and longevity of a population, measure how equally both are distributed, then set the result against each country’s ecological footprint.
Happy Planet Index    

In this calculation, the most successful countries are those where people live long and happy lives at little cost to the environment.

So which countries are they?
They’re not the wealthy Western countries you’d expect to see, or even the progressive Nordic ones that normally bag the lifestyle laurels. Instead, a list of the top 10 (the index ranks 140 countries overall) shows that when it comes to people’s ability to live good lives within sustainable limits, Latin American and Asia Pacific countries are ahead of the crowd.

      Happy Planet Index: top 10 countries    

Happy Planet Interactive Map

Green and pleasant land

There’s one country that stands out: Costa Rica, which tops the ranking for the third time. It is the happiest and most sustainable country on Earth, according to the Happy Planet Index.
So, what is it doing right?
A recent Gallup poll found the Central American nation to have the highest level of well-being in the world. It also has some of the longest-lived people: life expectancy there is 78.5 years – older than in the US. 
But what places the country time and again at the top of the index is that it delivers all this health and happiness while using a mere quarter of the resources that are typically used in the Western world.

How does it do that? Chiefly through a strong commitment to the environment: 99% of the country’s electricity supply is said to come from renewable sources, and the government has pledged to make the country carbon neutral by 2021. Other factors include robust investing in social programmes such as health and education, with public money that has been all the more plentiful since the abolition of the national army in 1949.

Wealthier Western countries tend to score highly when it comes to life expectancy and well-being, but the high environmental cost of their way of life sees their ratings plummet. The US, for instance, has one of the largest ecological footprints in the world. Of the Scandinavian nations, meanwhile, only Norway appears in the index’s top 20.


Compare country scores in more detail via this interactive map on the Happy Planet Index website.

Interactive Happy Planet Map

HOIP’s ~ Columbia Chemists Find Key to Manufacturing More Efficient Solar Cells ~ Is this the Future of Solar?

From Phys.org

In a discovery that could have profound implications for future energy policy, Columbia scientists have demonstrated it is possible to manufacture solar cells that are far more efficient than existing silicon energy cells by using a new kind of material, a development that could help reduce fossil fuel consumption.

The team, led by Xiaoyang Zhu, a professor of Chemistry at Columbia University, focused its efforts on a new class of solar cell ingredients known as Hybrid Organic Inorganic Perovskites (HOIPs). 

Their results, reported in the prestigious journal Science, also explain why these new materials are so much more efficient than traditional solar cells—solving a mystery that will likely prompt scientists and engineers to begin inventing new solar materials with similar properties in the years ahead.

“The need for renewable energy has motivated extensive research into solar cell technologies that are economically competitive with burning fossil fuel,” Zhu says. 
“Among the materials being explored for next generation solar cells, HOIPs have emerged a superstar. Until now no one has been able to explain why they work so well, and how much better we might make them. We now know it’s possible to make HOIP-based solar cells even more efficient than anyone thought possible.”

Solar cells are what turn sunlight into electricity. Also known as photovoltaic cells, these semiconductors are most frequently made from thin layers of silicon that transmit energy across its structure, turning it into DC current.

Silicon panels, which currently dominate the market for solar panels, must have a purity of 99.999 percent and are notoriously fragile and expensive to manufacture. Even a microscopic defect—such as misplaced, missing or extra ions—in this crystalline structure can exert a powerful pull on the charges the cells generate when they absorb sunlight, dissipating those charges before they can be transformed into electrical current.

In 2009, Japanese scientists demonstrated it was possible to build solar cells out of HOIPs, and that these cells could harvest energy from sunlight even when the crystals had a significant number of defects. Because they don’t need to be pristine, HOIPs can be produced on a large scale and at low cost. The Columbia team has been investigating HOIPs since 2014. Their findings could help boost the use of solar power, a priority in the age of global warming.

Over the last seven years, scientists have managed to increase the efficiency with which HOIPs can convert solar energy into electricity, to 22 percent from 4 percent. By contrast, it took researchers more than six decades to create silicon cells and bring them to their current level, and even now silicon cells can convert no more than about 25 percent of the sun’s energy into electrical current.

This discovery, Zhu said, meant that “scientists have only just begun to tap the potential of HOIPs to convert the sun’s energy into electricity.”

Theorists long ago demonstrated that the maximum efficiency silicon solar cells might ever reach— the percentage of energy in sunlight that might be converted to electricity we can use—is roughly 33 percent. It takes hundreds of nanoseconds for energized electrons to move from the part of a solar cell that infuses them with the sun’s energy, to the part of the cell that harvests the energy and converts it into electricity that can ultimately be fed into a power grid. During this migration across the solar cell, the energized electrons quickly dissipate their excess energy. 

But those calculations assume a specific rate of energy loss. 

The Columbia team discovered that the rate of energy loss is slowed down by over three-orders of magnitude in HOIPs – making it possible for the harvesting of excess electronic energy to increase the efficiency of solar cells.

“We’re talking about potentially doubling the efficiency of solar cells,” says Prakriti P. Joshi, a Ph.D. student in Zhu’s lab who is a coauthor on the paper. “That’s really exciting because it opens up a big, big field in engineering.” Adds Zhu, “This shows we can push the efficiencies of solar cells much higher than many people thought possible.”

After demonstrating this, the team then turned to the next question: what is it about the molecular structure of HOIPs that gives them their unique properties? How do electrons avoid defects? They discovered that the same mechanism that slows down the cooling of electron energy also protects the electrons from bumping into defects. 
This “protection” makes the HOIPs turn a blind eye to the ubiquitous defects in a material developed from room-temperature and solution processing, thus allowing an imperfect material to behave like a perfect semiconductor.

HOIPs contain lead, and are also water soluble, meaning the solar cells could begin to dissolve and leach lead into the environment around them if not carefully protected from the elements.

With the explanation of the mysterious mechanisms that give HOIPs their remarkable efficiencies, Zhu knew, material scientists would likely be able to mimic them with more environmentally-friendly materials.

“Now we can go back and design materials which are environmentally benign and really solve this problem everybody is worried about,” Zhu says. “This principle will allow people to start to design new materials for solar energy.”

 Explore further: New plastic solar cell minimizes loss of photon energy

More information: H. Zhu et al. Screening in crystalline liquids protects energetic carriers in hybrid perovskites, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9570 

Journal reference: Science  

Provided by: Columbia University 

Tesla Chosen For World’s Largest Lithium-ion Battery Project – Storage for California Edison’s Mira Loma

Tesla has been selected to provide a 20 MW/80 MWh Powerpack energy storage system at Southern California Edison’s Mira Loma substation.

Tesla says that when completed, the installation will be the largest lithium ion battery storage project in the world.

“When fully charged, this system will hold enough energy to power more than 2,500 households for a day or charge 1,000 Tesla vehicles,” states the company.

One of the very attractive aspects of battery based energy storage is how fast it can be implemented. Tesla states it will have the utility scale solution operational by the end of the year.

The Powerpack system will be charged using electricity from the mains grid during off-peak hours. 

During peak hours, it will provide electricity to help maintain the stability and reliability of Southern California Edison’s (SCE’s) electrical infrastructure. (Tesla Continued Below)

Also Read About: A New Nano-Enabled Energy Storage Company that Builds High Energy-Dense, Thin-Flexible- Form with Rapid Charge-Recharge … Super Capacitors and Batteries!

      The Tenka Energy Story

(Tesla Continued) The energy storage solution will reduce the need for gas-fired electricity generation and further SCE’s efforts in enhancing and modernising its grid.

SCE has previously worked with Tesla on two demonstration projects; one involving residential SCE customers and the other focusing on commercial and industrial customers..

As Powerwall did with home battery storage in Australia, the launch of Tesla Powerpack signified the beginning of Australia’s commercial energy storage revolution.

Tesla Powerpack installation

The Powerpack battery system can be used in a variety of commercial scenarios and is scalable; from 100kWh to 100MWh+ configurations in 250kWh increments. 

Each Powerpack contains 16 individual battery pods, a thermal control system and a vast array of sensors monitoring and reporting on cell level performance.

Tesla Powerpack can help businesses exercise greater control over their energy costs and make the most of their commercial solar power system installations.

In related news and closer to home, ABC Rural reports Tesla’s Nick Carter told farmers at an Agribusiness Australia event in Melbourne yesterday that battery storage technology could help move them into the energy production business.

“If there is land available, then use it for essentially mining or growing energy and if you’re grid-connected you could end up in the future when the rules change, selling it back as another revenue stream,” said Mr Carter.

Genesis Nanotechnology, Inc.

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Rice University: Graphene Nanoribbons May Help Heal Damaged Spinal Cords: Dr. James M. Tour, PhD

Rice University researchers James Tour, left, and William Sikkema. (Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University)

Dr. James M. Tour, PhD (named among “The 50 Most Influential Scientists in the World Today” by TheBestSchools.org) at Rice University, stated that a treatment procedure to heal damaged spinal cords by combining graphene nanoribbons produced with a process invented at Rice and a common polymer is expected to gain importance.

As stated in an issue of Nature from 2009, chemists at the Tour lab started their research work with the discovery of a chemical process to unravel graphene nanoribbons from the multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and have been working with graphene nanoribbons for almost 10 years now.

Since then, the researchers have been using nanoribbons to produce better batteries, and improve materials for things such as, deicers for airplane wings and less-permeable containers that can store natural gas.

The recent research work by Rice University scientists has resulted in medical applications of nanoribbons. A material dubbed Texas-PEG has been developed that will help to treat damaged spinal cords or even knit severed spinal cords. Rice logo_rice3

A paper describing the results of preliminary animal-model tests has been published in the current issue of the journal Surgical Neurology International.

William Sikkema, a Rice graduate student and also a co-lead author of the paper has customized these graphene nanoribbons for use in the medical domain. This customized nanoribbon is highly soluble in polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is a biocompatible polymer gel that is generally used in pharmaceutical products, surgeries, and other biological applications.

While mixing biocompatible nanoribbons with PEG after the edges of these biocompatible nanoribbons are functionalized with PEG chains, an electrically active network that helps the damaged spinal cord to reconnect.

“Neurons grow nicely on graphene because it’s a conductive surface and it stimulates neuronal growth,” Tour said.

When studies were conducted at Rice University and at other places, it was observed that the neurons grew along with graphene.

We’re not the only lab that has demonstrated neurons growing on graphene in a petri dish. The difference is other labs are commonly experimenting with water-soluble graphene oxide, which is far less conductive than graphene, or nonribbonized structures of graphene. We’ve developed a way to add water-solubilizing polymer chains to the edges of our nanoribbons that preserves their conductivity while rendering them soluble, and we’re just now starting to see the potential for this in biomedical applications.

Dr. James M. Tour, PhD Chemist, Rice University

He also stated that ribbonized graphene structures allow smaller amounts to be utilized to preserve a conductive pathway to bridge the severed spinal cord. Tour explained that only 1% of Texas-PEG comprises of nanoribbons, and that is enough to build a conductive scaffold where the spinal cord can reconnect.

Co-authors Bae Hwan Lee and C-Yoon Kim conducted an experiment at Konkuk University in South Korea, and observed that Texas-PEG was successfully able to restore function in a rodent that had a severed spinal cord. Tour explained that the material provided reliable motor and sensory neuronal signals to pass through the gap for 24 hours after total transection of the spinal cord and nearly perfect motor control recovery after 14 days.

This is a major advance over previous work with PEG alone, which gave no recovery of sensory neuronal signals over the same period of time and only 10 percent motor control over four weeks.

Dr. James M. Tour, PhD Chemist, Rice University

The seed to start this project began when Sikkema came across a study undertaken by Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero. Sikkema expected nanoribbons to enhance the research work that was based on PEG’s ability to promote the fusion of cell membranes by adding directional control for neurons and electrical conductivity while they spanned the gap between sections of the spinal cord. Developing contacts with the doctor resulted in a tie up with the South Korean researchers.

Tour told that Texas-PEG’s ability to help patients having spinal cord injuries is too reliable to be ignored. “Our goal is to develop this as a way to address spinal cord injury. We think we’re on the right path,” he said.

This is an exciting neurophysiological analysis following complete severance of a spinal cord. It is not a behavioral or locomotive study of the subsequent repair. The tangential singular locomotive analysis here is an intriguing marker, but it is not in a statistically significant set of animals. The next phases of the study will highlight the locomotive and behavioral skills with statistical relevance to assess whether these qualities follow the favorable neurophysiology that we recorded here.

Dr. James M. Tour, PhD Chemist, Rice University

Kim, co-primary author of the paper, is a research professor in the Department of Stem Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea, and a researcher at Seoul National University. Lee is an associate professor of physiology at the Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul. Tour is the T.T. and W.F. Chao Professor of Chemistry as well as a professor of computer science and of materials science and nanoengineering. Co-authors are In-Kyu Hwang of Konkuk University, Hanseul Oh of Seoul National University and Un Jeng Kim of the Yonsei University College of Medicine.

Source: http://www.rice.edu/

“Beam Me Up Scotty” ~ Teleportation of light particles across cities in China and Canada a ‘technological breakthrough’!


Scientists have shown they can teleport matter across a city, a development that has been hailed as “a technological breakthrough”.

However, do not expect to see something akin to the Star Trek crew beaming from the planet’s surface to the Starship Enterprise. star-trek-transporter-1280jpg-883390_1280w

Instead, in the two studies, published today in Nature Photonics, separate research groups have used quantum teleportation to send photons to new locations using fibre-optic communications networks in the cities of Hefei in China and Calgary in Canada.

Quantum teleportation is the ability to transfer information such as the properties or the quantum state of an atom — its energy, spin, motion, magnetic field and other physical properties — to another location without travelling in the space between.

Key points

  • Two experiments demonstrate teleportation of particles across real optical fibre networks for first time
  • Chinese experiment transports two photons per hour across seven kilometres
  • Canadian experiment transports 17 photons per minute across 6.2 kilometres


While it was first demonstrated in 1997, today’s studies are the first to show the process is technologically possible via a mainstream communications network.

The development could lead to future city-scale quantum technologies and communications networks, such as a quantum internet and improved security of internet-based information.

Dr. Ben Buchler, Associate Professor with the Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology at the Australian National University, said the technical achievement of completing the experiments in a “non-ideal environment” was “pretty profound”.

“People have known how to do this experiment since the early 2000s, but until these papers it hasn’t been performed in fibre communication networks, in situ, in cities,” said Dr. Buchler, who was not involved in the research.

“It’s seriously difficult to do what they have done.”

Watch the YouTube Video: “The Metaphysics of Teleportation” – Dr. Michio Kaku


A cornerstone of quantum teleportation is quantum entanglement, where two particles are intimately linked to each other in such a way that a change in one will affect the other.

Dr. Buchler said quantum teleportation involved mixing a photon with one branch of the entanglement and this joint element was then measured. The other branch of the entanglement was sent to the receiving party or new location.

This original ‘joint’ measurement is sent to the receiver, who can then use that information to manipulate the other branch of the entanglement.

“The thing that pops out is the original photon, in a sense it has indistinguishable characteristics from the one you put in,” Dr Buchler said.

Overcoming technical barriers

He said both teams had successfully overcome technical barriers to ensure the precise timing of photon arrival and accurate polarisation within the fibres.

The Chinese team teleported single protons using the standard telecommunications wavelength across a distance of seven kilometres, whiled the Canadian team teleported single photons up to 6.2 kilometres.

But work remained to increase the speed of the system with the Chinese group teleporting just two photons per hour and the Canadians a faster rate of 17 photons per minute.

Dr. Buchler said the speeds meant the development had little immediate practical value, but “this kind of teleportation is part of the protocol people imagine will be able to extend the range of quantum key distribution” — a technique used to send secure encrypted messages.

In the future scientists envision the evolution of a quantum internet that would allow the communication of quantum information between quantum computers.

Quantum computers on their own would allow fast computation, but networked quantum computers would be more powerful still.

Dr. Buchler said today’s studies were a foundation stone toward that vision as it showed it was possible to move quantum information from one location to another within mainstream networks without destroying it.

Yes … a LOT more work has to be done however before we “Warp” and “Beam” … but to put it into the words of ‘The Good Doctor’ …

“Damit Jim, I’m ONLY a doctor!” (Highly Logical) “Live long and Prosper!”




Which Country is the World’s ‘Most Innovative’? Where Does Your Country Rank (1 to 140) in the ‘Innovation Game?’



** From The Economist

WHICH is the world’s most innovative country? Answering this question is the aim of the annual Global Innovation Index and a related report, which were published this morning by Cornell University, INSEAD, a business school, and the World Intellectual Property Organisation.

The ranking of 140 countries and economies around the world, which are scored using 79 indicators, is not surprising: Switzerland, Britain, Sweden, the Netherlands and America lead the pack.

But the authors also look at their data from other angles, for instance how countries do relative to their economic development and the quality of innovation (measured by indicators such as university rankings). In both cases the results are more remarkable. The chart above shows that in innovation many countries in Africa punch above their economic weight. And the chart below indicates that, even though China is now churning out a lot of patents, it is still way behind America and other rich countries when it comes to innovation quality.