“Back to School” – Blue Bird is taking its new all-electric buses on the road to convince schools to go electric

Blue Bird, an important American bus manufacturer better known for its school buses, is taking its new electric buses on the road to school districts and fleet operators around the country to convince them to go electric.

The company unveiled their electric buses at the STN Tradeshow in Reno last year.

They made electric versions of their Type A, Type C, and Type D school buses – Type D pictured above.

Blue Bird says that both buses should be able to achieve about 100 to 120 miles of range, which is generally plenty for most school bus routes.

School buses generally operate on relatively short routes and they are often parked for long periods of time as they are not used as intensively as urban transit buses or coaches, which gives them opportunities to charge.

When unveiling the vehicles last year, Blue Bird said that the range was enabled by a massive 150 kWh battery pack, but now they have updated the powertrain with a new 160 kWh pack. The company said that a smaller 100 kWh option will also be made available for less demanding routes.

They are currently doing “Ride & Drive events” all around the country. They went to California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado and Ohio.

Phil Horlock, president and CEO of Blue Bird Corporation:

After the outstanding response we saw in California, Blue Bird is excited to showcase our electric school buses to customers and drivers across North America, not as concept vehicles, but as a preview of our production buses later this fall. As both the pioneer and undisputed leader in alternative fuels, we are delighted to expand our “green” product offering by adding electric bus options in both Type C and D body styles. Our electric buses have received an Executive Order from the California Air Resources Board and both HVIP and TVIP listing, which qualify Blue Bird’s electric buses for grants available in California and New York, respectively. That’s great news for our customers and following our Ride & Drives in California, we are already receiving orders from school districts. We are open for business and taking orders!

They are currently in New York and then will head to Florida and later Ontario, Canada. You can follow their other events here.

According to the company, the first buses will be delivered at the end of the summer or early fall and they will deploy a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) feature – meaning that the buses could be used as energy storage systems – next year.

Electrek’s Take

I think all-electric school buses are a no-brainer since urban transit buses are already starting to be financially viable solutions and school buses don’t need nearly as much energy capacity in most cases.

Even if the upfront cost might be higher, they should be able to compensate it with fuel and maintenance savings.

In the case of Blue Bird, a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) feature is also a smart addition that could add value to school districts buying fleets since the buses are often parked for long periods of time and could be used as energy storage systems.

Lion, a Quebec-based school bus manufacturer, also offers an electric school bus option – not for Type D buses. Several other companies have now a few electric solutions, like Daimler’s first all-electric school bus, which is expected to enter production next year.


High efficiency solar power conversion allowed by a novel composite material

A composite thin film made of two different inorganic oxide materials significantly improves the performance of solar cells, as recently demonstrated by a joint team of researchers led by Professor Federico Rosei at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), and Dr. Riad Nechache from École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS), both in the Montreal Area (Canada).

Following an original device concept, Mr. Joyprokash Chakrabartty, the researchers have developed this new composite thin film material which combines two different crystal phases comprising the atomic elements bismuth, manganese, and oxygen.

The combination of phases with two different compositions optimizes this material’s ability to absorb solar radiation and transform it into electricity. The results are highly promising for the development of future solar technologies, and also potentially useful in other optoelectronic devices.

The results of this research are discussed in an article published in Nature Photonics (“Improved photovoltaic performance from inorganic perovskite oxide thin films with mixed crystal phases”) by researchers and lead author Mr. Joyprokash Chakrabartty.

The key discovery consists in the observation that the composite thin film—barely 110 nanometres thick—absorbs a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to the wavelengths absorbed in the thin films made of the two individual materials. The interfaces between the two different phases within the composite film play a crucial role in converting more sunlight into electricity. This is a surprising, novel phenomenon in the field of inorganic perovskite oxide-based solar cells.

The composite material leads to a power conversion efficiency of up to 4.2%, which is a record value for this class of materials.

Source: INRS

How Lockheed Martin’s and Elcora Advanced Materials (Graphene) Partnership may Revolutionize Military “driverless vehicles” and Lithium-Ion Batteries

Elcora 2 BG-3-elcora

Maintaining a global supply chain is one of the most secretive and understated keys to the success of a military campaign. As described by the U.S. Army, the quick and efficient transport of goods like water, food, fuel, and ammunition has been essential in winning wars for thousands of years. Supply chain and logistics management has evolved to include, “storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption”. In essence, that means the movement of vehicles bringing precious cargo from the home base to the soldiers fighting on the front lines.

Security and strategic operations are critical elements in the fulfillment of this potentially hazardous supply chain. Enemy forces hiding in the bushes can open fire to try to slow down the troops’ movement. With mines littered all over the war zone, all it would take is one wrong step, and the truck and the people in them, would be blown to smithereens.

One ingenious solution is the deployment of an automated military convoy run by a military commander, which can reduce risks and their accompanying vulnerabilities. In line with this, advanced defense contractor Lockheed Martin Canada (NYSE:LMT) has successfully tested “driverless trucks” on two active U.S. military bases.

Call it the soldier’s equivalent of a smart fleet of cars that would take the currently popular concept of self-driving vehicles to a whole new, safer level. Human operators would still be needed to guide the vehicles towards their destinations. However, because this could be accomplished remotely, very little time would be lost to the exchange of hostilities, as these smart military vehicles would be impervious to the enemy’s usual attempts at distraction. And in case firepower does break out, the loss of life, as well as injury to the troops, would be minimal.

The memorandum of agreement signed between Elcora and Lockheed Martin, is not the usual corporate alliance but bears important long-term repercussions for sectors such as transport, security, and the military-industrial complex. Lockheed Martin is a leviathan in the aerospace, defense, weaponry, and other technologies that have been instrumental in keeping many of the nations of the world safe. elcora-advanced-materials 3

The Lithium-ion (or Li-ion) batteries that it uses to store energy in many of its technologies and processes are critical to upholding the operations being conducted in many of its devices, plants, and facilities. The more energy that these batteries can store, the longer the systems and machines can function, without interruption, and in compliance with the highest standards of safety.

This is where Elcora comes in. The future of military supply chain and logistics management is accelerating thanks to Lockheed’s recently signed partnership with end-to-end graphene producer Elcora Advanced Materials (TXSV:ERAOTC:ECORF).

Elcora graphene-uses 1One element that can ensure the consistent and reliable powering up for the Li-ion batteries is graphene, an element derived from graphite minerals. Elcora is one of the few companies that produce and distribute graphene in one dynamic end-to-end operation, from the time that the first rocks are mined in Sri Lanka, to the time that they are refined, developed, and purified in the company’s facilities in Canada. The quality of the graphene that comes out of Elcora’s pipeline is higher than those usually found in the market. This pristine quality can help the Li-ion batteries increase their storage of power without adding further cost.

Li-ion batteries are already being sought after for prolonging the lifespan of power charged in a wide range of devices, from the ubiquitous smartphones, to the electric cars that innovators like Elon Musk are pushing to become more mainstream in our roads and highways. Lockheed Martin will also be using them in the military vehicles that will be guided by their Autonomous Mobility Applique Systems (AMAS), or the ‘driverless military convoy’, as described above. The tests have shown that these near-smart vehicles have already clocked in 55,000 miles. Lockheed is looking forward to completing the tests and fast-forwarding to deploying them for actual use in military campaigns.

Rice Chart for LiIo Batts 2-riceuscienti

The importance of long-lasting Li-ion batteries in the kind of combat arena that Lockheed Martin is expert in cannot be overestimated. With electric storage given a lengthier lifespan by the graphene anode in the batteries, the military commanders guiding the smart convoys do not have to fear any anticipated technical breakdown. They can also count on the batteries to sustain the vehicles’ power and carry them through to the completion of their mission if something unexpected happens. The juice in those Li-ion batteries will last longer, which is critical in crises such as the sudden appearance of combatants.

Sometimes, the winner in war turns out to be the force that is the more resilient and sustaining power. As the ancient Chinese master of war Sun Tzu had warned eons ago, sometimes “the line between order and disorder”—or victory or defeat—“lies in logistics.” Through its graphene-constituted Li-ion batteries, The Lockheed Martin-Elcora alliance can certainly enhance any military force’s capacity in that area.

* Article from Technology.org

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Paper Biomass Could Yield Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

A byproduct of the papermaking industry could be the answer to creating long-lasting lithium-sulfur batteries.

A team from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has created a method to use sulfonated carbon waste called lignosulfonate to build a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery.

Lignosulfonate is typically combusted on site, releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere after sulfur has been captured for reuse. A battery built with the abundant and cheap material could be used to power big data centers, as well as provide a cheaper energy-storage option for microgrids and the traditional electric grid.

“Our research demonstrates the potential of using industrial paper-mill byproducts to design sustainable, low-cost electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries,” Trevor Simmons, a Rensselaer research scientist who developed the technology with his colleagues at the Center for Future Energy Systems (CFES), said in a statement.

Rechargeable batteries have two electrodes—a positive cathode and a negative anode. A liquid electrolyte is placed in between the electrodes to serve as a medium for the chemical reactions that produce electric current. In a lithium-sulfur battery, the cathode is made of a sulfur-carbon matrix and the anode is comprised of a lithium metal oxide.

Sulfur is nonconductive in its elemental form. When combined with carbon at elevated temperatures it becomes highly conductive, but can easily dissolve into a battery’s electrolyte, causing the electrodes on either side to deteriorate after only a few cycles.

Different forms of carbon, like nanotubes and complex carbon foams, have been tried to confine the sulfur in place, but have not been successful.

“Our method provides a simple way to create an optimal sulfur-based cathode from a single raw material,” Simmons said.

The research team developed a dark syrupy substance dubbed “brown liquor,” which they dried and then heated to about 700 degrees Celsius in a quartz tube furnace.

The high heat drives off most of the sulfur gas, while retaining some of the sulfur as polysulfides—chains of sulfur atoms—that are embedded deep within an activated carbon matrix. The heating process is then repeated until the correct amount of sulfur is trapped within the carbon matrix.

The researchers then ground up the material and mix it with an inert polymer binder to create a cathode coating on aluminum foil.

Thus far, the team has created a lithium-sulfur battery prototype the size of a watch battery that can cycle approximately 200 times.

They will now attempt to scale up the prototype to markedly increase the discharge rate and the battery’s cycle life.

“In repurposing this biomass, the researchers working with CFES are making a significant contribution to environmental preservation while building a more efficient battery that could provide a much-needed boost for the energy storage industry,” Martin Byrne, CFES director of business development, said in a statement.

Mobility Disruption by Tony Seba – Silicon Valley Entrepreneur and Lecturer at Stanford University – The Coming EV Revolution by 2030? – YouTube Video

Tony Seba, Silicon Valley entrepreneur, Author and Thought Leader, Lecturer at Stanford University, Keynote

The reinvention and connection between infrastructure and mobility will fundamentally disrupt the clean transport model. It will change the way governments and consumers think about mobility, how power is delivered and consumed and the payment models for usage. Will we be ALL Electric Vehicles by 2030? Is the ICE Dead? Impossible?

New Electricity-Generating Backpack Lightens the Load on Soldiers

Soldier Pack 1 newlightning_0

Most soldiers carry a heavy burden in the field, including an 80-pound backpack filled with essential supplies and tools.

If that’s not heavy enough, soldiers often carry an additional 20 to 30 pounds in backup batteries to power their radios and other necessary electronics.

However, a new innovation offers a solution.

Lightning Pack—a 2017 R&D 100 Award Winner—is able to generate electricity as soldiers walk and run through the field, eliminating the need for them to carry batteries. They received the award at the R&D 100 Awards Gala held in Orlando, Florida on Nov. 17, 2017.

The backpack works by harvesting kinetic energy, while also reducing the heavy load soldiers have to carry around the field, said Lawrence Rome, PhD, the founder and chief scientific officer of Lightning Packs LLC, in an interview with R&D Magazine.

“Essentially in our backpacks there are two frames, there’s a frame connected to the person with a hip belt and shoulder straps and there is a second frame called a moving frame in which the bag is attached and the whole load sits there,” he said. “In normal backpacks, the two frames are locked together and move in unison.

“What we did is we suspended the moving frame from the fixed frame attached to the body by a spring mechanism,” he added. “So essentially as you walk up and down the moving frame moves in respect to the fixed frame and that generates electricity.”

By reducing the need for extra disposable batteries, soldiers using the backpack can opt to either reduce the overall weight of their backpacks or use the extra space to carry other necessary supplies. The packs also permits longer mission durations and reduces the demand for resupply operations.

In addition to providing a benefit for soldiers, the electricity-generating backpack could provide wearable, renewable electricity for disaster-relief workers operating in remote locations, as well as forestry service workers, medical aid relief workers, hikers, campers, and hunters.

The inspiration for Lightning Pack

Rome was a muscle physiologist in 2002 studying how fish swim when the U.S. Navy approached him unexpectedly on a possible project to develop a submarine that maneuvers similar to a fish.

During conversations with members of the military regarding the submarine, Rome learned about the heavy backpacks that many soldiers must regularly wear.

Although the task of designing a backpack was outside his expertise at the time, Rome was inspired to take on the challenge of eliminating some of the weight from the extra batteries using his knowledge of biomechanics.

“I know from teaching biomechanics that every step they take their hip goes up and down two-to-three inches,” Rome said. “So if their 80 pound backpack is connected at the hip then you have 80 pounds going up and down in every step. That winds up being a lot of mechanical energy.”

Benefits of Lightning Pack

According to Rome, prior to Lightning Pack’s creation the most electricity that was ever derived from walking was 20 milliwatts.

Lightning Packs can generate 12 to 15 watts of electricity by walking at a relaxed pace, 20 to 35 watts by walking at a hump pace, 33 to 40 watts by running and 30 to 50 watts by hand pumping.

Walking can also reduce the accelerative force by 82 percent and running reduces the accelerative force by 86 percent, allowing soldiers to have greater mobility in the field.

The electricity-generating backpacks currently come equipped in three sizes for a military assault pack, a mid-sized molle and a large molle ruck.

Rome explained how the extra electricity is ultimately used.

“Essentially what happens is the electricity that we generate goes to a few different places,” Rome said. “If you have a radio, it could power the radio directly. The excess electricity goes onto a battery, so the output plugs into a military battery.”

Rome said that radio communications are one of the largest drains of battery power for soldiers.

By having soldiers generate electricity by themselves, the military can reduce logistical support, dangerous supply routes and the over environmental impact due to having fewer disposable batteries.

Some of the other benefits include allowing soldiers to manage heavy loads with less stress on the body and minimizing acute and long-term musculoskeletal injuries, while also increasing force readiness and retention.

Lightning Packs are currently being developed with funding from the U.S. military and the National Institutes of Health. The military is currently undergoing stringent field tests on the backpacks.

The next step for Rome and the Lightning Pack team is to focus on creating a non-military version of the backpack that consumers can potentially use to power cell phones, GPS devices and other electronics.

The physics of Light and Sound: Examining the Quantum Nature of Nanostructures – Putting Quantum Scientists in the Driver’s Seat

Quantum Scientists 180327141712_1_540x360
An electron beam (teal) hits a nanodiamond, exciting plasmons and vibrations in the nanodiamond that interact with the sample’s nitrogen vacancy center defects. Correlated (yellow) photons are emitted from the nanodiamond, while uncorrelated (yellow) photons are emitted by a nearby diamond excited by surface plasmons (red).
Credit: Raphael Pooser/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy

Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. Their studies will enable advancements in quantum computing, sensing, simulation, and materials development.

The researchers’ experimental results were recently published in Physical Review B Rapid Communication and Optics Letters.

Quantum information is considered fragile because it can be lost when the system in which it is encoded interacts with its environment, a process called dissipation. Scientists with ORNL’s Computing and Computational Sciences and Physical Sciences directorates and Vanderbilt University have collaborated to develop methods that will help them control — or drive — the “leaky,” dissipative behavior inherent in quantum systems.

“Our goal is to develop experimental platforms that allow us to probe and control quantum coherent dynamics in materials,” said Benjamin Lawrie, a research scientist in the Quantum Sensing Team in ORNL’s Quantum Information Science Group. “To do that, you often have to be able to understand what’s going on at the nanoscale.”

Bringing perspectives from quantum information science, nanoscience and electron microscopy, the scientists exploit existing knowledge of matter and the physics of light and sound to examine the quantum nature of nanostructures — structures that measure about one-billionth of a meter.

One project focused on driving nitrogen vacancy center defects in nanodiamonds with plasmons. The naturally occurring defects are created when a nitrogen atom forms in place of the typical carbon atom, adjacent to an atomless vacancy. The defects are being investigated for use in tests of entanglement, a state that will allow substantially more information to be encoded in a quantum system than can be accomplished with classical computing.

Electrons generate an electric field. When an electron beam is applied to a material, the material’s electrons are spurred to motion — a state called excitation — creating a magnetic field that can then be detected as light. Working with plasmons, electron excitations that couple easily with light, allows scientists to examine electromagnetic fields at the nanoscale.

Matthew Feldman, a Vanderbilt University graduate student conducting doctoral research at ORNL through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship program and a member of the Quantum Sensing Team, used a high-energy electron beam to excite nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond nanoparticles, causing them to emit light. He then used a cathodoluminescence microscope owned by ORNL’s Materials Science and Technology Division, which measures the visible-spectrum luminescence in irradiated materials, to collect the emitted photons and characterize high-speed interactions among nitrogen vacancy centers, plasmons and vibrations within the nanodiamond.

In other research, Jordan Hachtel, a postdoctoral fellow with ORNL’s Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, used the cathodoluminescence microscope to excite plasmons in gold nanospirals. He explored how the geometry of the spirals could be harnessed to focus energy in nanoscale systems. Andy Lupini served the project as a microscopy consultant, providing expertise regarding equipment optimization and troubleshooting.

Precise control over nanoscale energy transfer is required to enable long-lived entanglement in a model explored by Eugene Dumitrescu, a research scientist in ORNL’s Quantum Information Science Group. Dumitrescu’s research, published in Physical Review A in late 2017, showed that the photon statistics Feldman collected could be used in calculations to show entanglement.

“This work advances our knowledge of how to control light-matter interactions, providing experimental proof of a phenomenon that had previously been described by simulations,” Lawrie said.

Closed systems, in which quantum information can be kept away from its surroundings, theoretically can prevent dissipation, but real-world quantum systems are open to numerous influences that result in information leakage.

“The elephant in the room in discussions of quantum systems is decoherence,” Feldman said. “If we can model an environment to influence how a quantum system works, we can enable entanglement.”

Dumitrescu agreed. “We know quantum systems will be leaky. One remedy is to drive them,” he said. “The driving mechanisms we’re exploring cancel out the effects of dissipation.”

Dumitrescu used the analogy of a musical instrument to explain the researchers’ attempts to control quantum systems. “If you pluck a violin string, you get the sound, but it begins to dissipate through the environment, the air,” he said. “But if you slowly draw the bow across the string, you get a more stable, longer-lasting sound. You’ve brought control to the system.”

Feldman thinks these are fascinating times for quantum physicists because the field of quantum computing is at the same phase classical computing was in the mid-20th century. “What excites me most is how current research could change our understanding of quantum systems and materials,” he said.

Story Source:

Materials provided by DOE/Oak Ridge National LaboratoryNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Matthew A. Feldman, Eugene F. Dumitrescu, Denzel Bridges, Matthew F. Chisholm, Roderick B. Davidson, Philip G. Evans, Jordan A. Hachtel, Anming Hu, Raphael C. Pooser, Richard F. Haglund, Benjamin J. Lawrie. Colossal photon bunching in quasiparticle-mediated nanodiamond cathodoluminescencePhysical Review B, 2018; 97 (8) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.081404

The future of photonics using quantum dots – researchers are trying to integrate photonics into silicon devices.

QDots for Photonics 180327141726_1_540x360One type of laser that’s particularly suited for quantum dots is a mode-locked laser, which passively generates ultrashort pulses less than one picosecond in duration.
Credit: Peter Allen

The future of photonics using quantum dots

Thousands of miles of fiber-optic cables crisscross the globe and package everything from financial data to cat videos into light. But when the signal arrives at your local data center, it runs into a silicon bottleneck. Instead of light, computers run on electrons moving through silicon-based chips — which, despite huge advances, are still less efficient than photonics.

To break through this bottleneck, researchers are trying to integrate photonics into silicon devices. They’ve been developing lasers — a crucial component of photonic circuits — that work seamlessly on silicon. In a paper appearing this week in APL Photonics, from AIP Publishing, researchers from the University of California, Santa Barbara write that the future of silicon-based lasers may be in tiny, atom like structures called quantum dots.

Such lasers could save a lot of energy. Replacing the electronic components that connect devices with photonic components could cut energy use by 20 to 75 percent, Justin Norman, a graduate student at UC Santa Barbara, said. “It’s a substantial cut to global energy consumption just by having a way to integrate lasers and photonic circuits with silicon.”

Silicon, however, does not have the right properties for lasers. Researchers have instead turned to a class of materials from Groups III and V of the periodic table because these materials can be integrated with silicon.

Initially, the researchers struggled to find a functional integration method, but ultimately ended up using quantum dots because they can be grown directly on silicon, Norman said. Quantum dots are semiconductor particles only a few nanometers wide — small enough that they behave like individual atoms. When driven with electrical current, electrons and positively charged holes become confined in the dots and recombine to emit light — a property that can be exploited to make lasers.

The researchers made their III-V quantum-dot lasers using a technique called molecular beam epitaxy. They deposit the III-V material onto the silicon substrate, and its atoms self-assemble into a crystalline structure. But the crystal structure of silicon differs from III-V materials, leading to defects that allow electrons and holes to escape, degrading performance. Fortunately, because quantum dots are packed together at high densities — more than 50 billion dots per square centimeter — they capture electrons and holes before the particles are lost.

These lasers have many other advantages, Norman said. For example, quantum dots are more stable in photonic circuits because they have localized atomlike energy states. They can also run on less power because they don’t need as much electric current. Moreover, they can operate at higher temperatures and be scaled down to smaller sizes.

In just the last year, researchers have made considerable progress thanks to advances in material growth, Norman said. Now, the lasers operate at 35 degrees Celsius without much degradation and the researchers report that the lifetime could be up to 10 million hours.

They are now testing lasers that can operate at 60 to 80 degrees Celsius, the more typical temperature range of a data center or supercomputer. They’re also working on designing epitaxial waveguides and other photonic components, Norman said. “Suddenly,” he said, “we’ve made so much progress that things are looking a little more near term.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by American Institute of PhysicsNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. S. A. Kazazis, E. Papadomanolaki, M. Androulidaki, M. Kayambaki, E. Iliopoulos. Optical properties of InGaN thin films in the entire composition rangeJournal of Applied Physics, 2018; 123 (12): 125101 DOI: 10.1063/1.5020988

3 Questions for Innovating the Clean Energy Economy (MIT Energy Initiative)

daniel-kammen-mit-energy-initiative-mitei-2018_0Daniel Kammen, professor of energy at the University of California at Berkeley, spoke on clean energy innovation and implementation in a talk at MIT. Photo: Francesca McCaffrey/MIT Energy Initiative

Daniel Kammen of the University of California at Berkeley discusses current efforts in clean energy innovation and implementation, and what’s coming next.

Daniel Kammen is a professor of energy at the University of California at Berkeley, with parallel appointments in the Energy and Resources Group (which he chairs), the Goldman School of Public Policy, and the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering.

Recently, he gave a talk at MIT examining the current state of clean energy innovation and implementation, both in the U.S. and internationally. Using a combination of analytical and empirical approaches, he discussed the strengths and weaknesses of clean energy efforts on the household, city, and regional levels. The MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI) followed up with him on these topics.

Q: Your team has built energy transition models for several countries, including Chile, Nicaragua, China, and India. Can you describe how these models work and how they can inform global climate negotiations like the Paris Accords?

Clean Energy Storage I header1

A: My laboratory has worked with three governments to build open-source models of the current state of their energy systems and possible opportunities for improvement. This model, SWITCH , is an exceptionally high-resolution platform for examining the costs, reliability, and carbon emissions of energy systems as small as Nicaragua’s and as large as China’s. The exciting recent developments in the cost and performance improvements of solar, wind, energy storage, and electric vehicles permit the planning of dramatically decarbonized systems that have a wide range of ancillary benefits: increased reliability, improved air quality, and monetizing energy efficiency, to name just a few. With the Paris Climate Accords placing 80 percent or greater decarbonization targets on all nations’ agendas (sadly, except for the U.S. federal government), the need for an “honest broker” for the costs and operational issues around power systems is key.

Q: At the end of your talk, you mentioned a carbon footprint calculator that you helped create. How much do individual behaviors matter in addressing climate change?

A: The carbon footprint, or CoolClimate project, is a visualization and behavioral economics tool that can be used to highlight the impacts of individual decisions at the household, school, and city level. We have used it to support city-city competitions for “California’s coolest city,” to explore the relative impacts of lifetime choices (buying an electric vehicle versus or along with changes of diet), and more.

Q: You touched on the topic of the “high ambition coalition,” a 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference goal of keeping warming under 1.5 degrees Celsius. Can you expand on this movement and the carbon negative strategies it would require?

A: As we look at paths to a sustainable global energy system, efforts to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius will require not only zeroing out industrial and agricultural emissions, but also removing carbon from the atmosphere. This demands increasing natural carbon sinks by preserving or expanding forests, sustaining ocean systems, and making agriculture climate- and water-smart. One pathway, biomass energy with carbon capture and sequestration, has both supporters and detractors. It involves growing biomass, using it for energy, and then sequestering the emissions.

This talk was one in a series of MITEI seminars supported by IHS Markit.

Sugar-coated “nanosheets” selectively targets pathogens – Functions like flypaper selectively binding with viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)

Sugar pathogens 24-scientistsdeA molecular model of a peptoid nanosheet that shows loop structures in sugars (orange) that bind to Shiga toxin (shown as a five-color bound structure at upper right). Credit: Berkeley Lab

Researchers have developed a process for creating ultrathin, self-assembling sheets of synthetic materials that can function like designer flypaper in selectively binding with viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.

In this way the new platform, developed by a team led by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), could potentially be used to inactivate or detect .

The team, which also included researchers from New York University, created the synthesized  at Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, a nanoscale science center, out of self-assembling, bio-inspired polymers known as peptoids. The study was published earlier this month in the journal ACS Nano.

The sheets were designed to present simple sugars in a patterned way along their surfaces, and these sugars, in turn, were demonstrated to selectively bind with several proteins, including one associated with the Shiga toxin, which causes dysentery. Because the outside of our cells are flat and covered with sugars, these 2-D nanosheets can effectively mimic cell surfaces.

“It’s not just a ‘lock and key’ – it’s like Velcro, with a bunch of little loops that converge on the target protein together,” said Ronald Zuckermann, a scientist at the Molecular Foundry who led the study. “Now we can mimic a nanoscale feature that is ubiquitous in biology.”

Scientists develop sugar-coated nanosheets to selectively target pathogens
3-D-printed model of a peptoid nanosheet, showing patterned rows of sugars. Credit: Berkeley Lab

He noted that numerous pathogens, from the flu virus to cholera bacteria, bind to sugars on cell surfaces. So picking the right sugars to bind to the peptoid nanosheets, in the right distributions, can determine which pathogens will be drawn to them.

“The chemistry we’re doing is very modular,” Zuckermann added. “We can ‘click on’ different sugars, and present them on a well-defined, planar surface. We can control how far apart they are from each other. We can do this with pretty much any sugar.”

The peptoid platform is also more rugged and stable compared to natural biomolecules, he said, so it can potentially be deployed into the field for tests of bioagents by military personnel and emergency responders, for example.

And peptoids – an analog to peptides in biology that are chains of amino acids – are cheap and easy-to-make polymers.

“The chemical information that instructs the molecules to spontaneously assemble into the sugar-coated sheets is programmed into each molecule during its synthesis,” Zuckermann said. “This work demonstrates our ability to readily engineer sophisticated biomimetic nanostructures by direct control of the polymer sequence.”

Scientists develop sugar-coated nanosheets to selectively target pathogens
A 3-D ribbon model representing a protein subunit of the Shiga toxin. The bacteria-produced toxin causes dysentery in humans. Credit: Wikimedia Commons

The -coated nanosheets are made in a liquid solution. Zuckermann said if the nanosheets are used to protect someone from becoming exposed to a pathogen, he could envision the use of a nasal spray containing the pathogen-binding nanosheets.

The nanosheets could also potentially be used in environmental cleanups to neutralize specific toxins and pathogens, and the sheets could potentially be scaled to target viruses like Ebola and bacteria like E. coli, and other pathogens.

In the latest study, the researchers confirmed that the bindings with the targeted proteins were successful by embedding a fluorescent dye in the sheets and attaching another fluorescent dye on the target proteins. A color change indicated that a protein was bound to the nanosheet.

The intensity of this color change can also guide researchers to improve them, and to discover new nanosheets that could target specific pathogens.

(From phys.org)

 Explore further: ‘Molecular Velcro’ may lead to cost-effective alternatives to natural antibodies

More information: Alessia Battigelli et al, Glycosylated Peptoid Nanosheets as a Multivalent Scaffold for Protein Recognition, ACS Nano (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b08018