Tiny Needles to Fight Cancer

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8MIT Technology Review, September 1, 2010, by Prachi Patel  –  Researchers inject quantum dots into the skin using plastic microneedles, potentially providing a way to diagnose and treat diseases.

Using a novel laser-based technique, researchers at North Carolina State University have made arrays of tiny, hollow plastic needles that they used to insert fluorescent quantum-dot dyes into skin. Biomedical engineering professor Roger Narayan, who leads the research, says the microneedles and quantum dots, which have been tested on pigs, could be used to diagnose and treat skin cancer and other chronic diseases.

Tiny Needles fight CancerResearchers have recently developed ways to use quantum dots–nanocrystals of semiconductors such as cadmium selenide and zinc sulfide that glow in different colors–to image tumors and deliver drugs into cells. The dots are much brighter and more stable inside the body than traditional organic dyes. “When combined with microneedles, [quantum dots] can offer a powerful method to probe the skin and other tissues,” says Mark Prausnitz, a chemical and biomolecular engineering professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Prausnitz has made biodegradable polymer microneedles that dissolve into the skin in a few minutes.

Tiny thorns: A hollow polymer microneedles, seen here under a scanning electron microscope, are about 700 nanometers long. Doctors could use the needles to insert quantum dot dyes into the skin for disease diagnostics and therapy.     Credit: Roger Narayan

Microneedle technology has been under development for 15 years as a painless way to administer drugs and for diabetics to monitor their blood sugar levels. The needles, typically made of silicon or various polymers, are typically several hundred micrometers long and wide–too small to cause pain when injected into the skin. They can be solid, in which case they encapsulate or are coated with drugs, or they can be hollow for injecting a substance into the skin.


Silicon microneedles are typically made with the same lithography techniques used to make computer chips. But the new laser technique makes it easier to control the shape and size of the polymer needles, Narayan says. He adds that the technique is simple, requires just one step, and is suitable for low-cost mass production in a conventional manufacturing environment. “No clean room facilities or other dedicated environments are necessary,” he says.

The researchers make the thorn-shaped needles by shining a femtosecond laser on a light-sensitive liquid resin that polymerizes under the light. The polymer resins, used to make hearing aids and other medical devices, are cheap and widely available.

Narayan and his colleagues are focusing on the medical applications of the microneedles. Together with researchers at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill medical center and Mercer University, they are evaluating the use of the devices in animals. “We’re trying to understand how much time transpires between delivery of dose and observation of physiological response,” Narayan says.

Nanotechnology to boost economy … In Australia


Stain resistant clothes, medical breakthroughs, more powerful smartphones and stronger construction materials are a small part of the nanotechnology revolution that’s expected to generate $3 trillion dollars revenue globally by 2020.

Nanotechnology exploits the fact that materials behave differently at scales below about 100 nanometers, which is about 200 times smaller than the width of a human hair.

Scientists launched on Friday a national strategy for nanotechnology development.

They say development could help parts of the manufacturing industry revolutionise its products, develop new products and address the grand challenges facing the nation such as health and ageing.

Professor Chennupati Jagadish, Australian Academy of Science secretary for physical sciences, says the plan will also improve our ability to participate effectively in the Asian Century.

“Concerted effort must also be put into promoting Australian nanotechnology capability on the international stage,” he said in a statement.

The plan’s vision statement says assessments of the impact of nanotechnology on society by 2020 suggest Australia needs to invest more.

“The strong implication is that economies and industries that fail to invest in nano-inspired technology will be left behind as new products with improved or entirely new functionality replace the old,” it says.

China in particular has made nanotechnology research and funding a priority.

Nanotechnology has applications in other areas, such as improving community health, remediation of the environment, clean energy solutions and national security.

The strategy makes eight recommendations, including the setting up of mechanisms to bring industry and researchers together and national coordination by researchers to ensure it all remains on track.

Physicists at CU (Boulder, CO) create ‘recipe book’ for building new materials

(Nanowerk News) By showing that tiny particles injected  into a liquid crystal medium adhere to existing mathematical theorems,  physicists at the University of Colorado Boulder have opened the door for the  creation of a host of new materials with properties that do not exist in nature.
The findings show that researchers can create a “recipe book” to  build new materials of sorts using topology, a major mathematical field that  describes the properties that do not change when an object is stretched, bent or  otherwise “continuously deformed.” Published online Dec. 23 in the journal Nature (“Topological colloids”, the study also is the  first to experimentally show that some of the most important topological  theorems hold up in the real material world, said CU-Boulder physics department  Assistant Professor Ivan Smalyukh, a study senior author.
This  image shows polarized light interacting with a particle injected into a liquid  crystal medium. (Image: Bohdan Senyuk and Ivan Smalyukh, Colorado University)
The research could lead to upgrades in liquid crystal displays,  like those used in laptops and television screens, to allow them to interact  with light in new and different ways. One possibility is to create liquid  crystal displays that are even more energy efficient, Smalyukh said, extending  the battery life for the devices they’re attached to.
The research was funded in part by Smalyukh’s Presidential Early  Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, which he received from President  Barack Obama in 2010. And the research supports the goals laid out by the White  House’s Materials Genome Initiative, Smalyukh said, which seeks to deploy “new  advanced materials at least twice as fast as possible today, at a fraction of  the cost.”
Smalyukh, postdoctoral researcher Bohdan Senyuk, and doctoral  student Qingkun Liu set up the experiment by creating colloids — solutions in  which tiny particles are dispersed, but not dissolved, throughout a host medium.  Colloids are common in everyday life and include substances such as milk, jelly,  paint, smoke, fog and shaving cream.
For this study, the physicists created a colloid by injecting  tiny particles into a liquid crystal — a substance that behaves somewhat like a  liquid and somewhat like a solid. The researchers injected differently shaped  particles that represent fundamental building-block shapes in topology. That  means each of the particles is distinct from the others and one cannot be turned  into the other without cutting or gluing. Objects that look differently can  still be considered the same in topology if one can be turned into the other by  stretching or bending – types of “continuous deformations.”
In the field of topology, for example, an object shaped like a  donut and an object shaped like a coffee cup are treated the same. That’s  because a donut shape can be “continuously deformed” into a coffee cup by  indenting one side of the donut. But a donut-shaped object cannot be turned into  a sphere or a cylinder because the hole in the donut would have to be eliminated  by “gluing” the sides of the donut back together or by “cutting” the side of the  donut.
Once injected into a liquid crystal, the particles behaved as  predicted by topology. “Our study shows that interaction between particles and  molecular alignment in liquid crystals follows the predictions of topological  theorems, making it possible to use these theorems in designing new composite  materials with unique properties that cannot be encountered in nature or  synthesized by chemists,” Smalyukh said. “These findings lay the groundwork for  new applications in experimental studies of low-dimensional topology, with  important potential ramifications for many branches of science and technology.”
Source: University of Colorado  Boulder

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Nano Labs CTLE Literally Redefines “Green Energy”

Press Release: Nano Labs Corp. – Wed, Dec 19, 2012 7:10 AM EST

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8DETROIT, Dec. 19, 2012 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Nano Labs Corp. (CTLE) today announced it has developed an innovative “intelligent illumination system” for greenhouses, that works with commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to reduce energy consumption and improve processes contributing to the growth of plant life in agricultural greenhouses.

The new system reduces energy consumption while at the same time providing improved control over artificial light used to stimulate photochemical activities in plants for growth and the production of chlorophyll. By employing a “The Pulse Modulated Chlorophyll Fluorescence Monitoring Stage”, the innovative technology provides for the automatic control of light in relation to a whole range of greenhouse and plant conditions, including seasonal adjustments tailored to the type of vegetables and plants being illuminated.

“Through nanotechnology, we believe we’re taking LEDs to another level for commercial greenhouses and the agriculture industry,” said Nano Labs’ President Bernardo Chavarria. ” Our technology offers better control in relation to light frequency (or wavelength), light quality, and pulse width of the light beams emitted by the LEDs, which hold important advantages over other existing artificial illumination sources such as fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressured sodium lamps. Our system offers higher efficiency in terms of energy consumption, quantum efficiency of the light produced, provides longer lifespan, controllable emission spectrum, safer handling, as well as improved disposal procedures.”

In developing the technology, Nano Lab’s goal was to help world agriculture to improve the crop yields and the quality of produce, while maintaining low energy consumption and minimizing the environmental impacts, Mr. Chavaria explained.

“We all know that light, to a large extent, is responsible for life on Earth. However, for a long time Science has worked only to a limited degree to study how we humans can use artificial light to promote plant growth. In recent years, though, we’ve seen very impressive developments in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), not only in terms of their  improved illumination capabilities, but also in relation to affordability. We believe LEDs hold much promise for creating new technologies for the 21st century agriculture,” said Dr. Victor Castano, CEO of Innovation at Nano Labs.

The novel system for greenhouses has allowed Nano Labs to determine the effect of pulsed light, as opposed to simple continuous light, in a frequency range from 0.1Hz to 100 kHz, with red and blue LEDs on the chlorophyll fluorescence emission of tomato plants, demonstrating that it is possible through the Company’s innovations to control and enhance plant growth at will.

This technology represents an answer to the greenhouse growers problem worldwide, of making as efficient as possible the crop yield in their agricultural greenhouses, while maintaining a low energy consumption, thus having a favourable impact on the environment. Also, the technology aims to link two important industrial activities which would seem to have little relation: photonics and agriculture, opening new market opportunities for both. With Nano Labs` approach, it would be possible to increase the vegetable production in greenhouses, independently of the season, for the pulsed LEDs light replicates the crop cycles efficiently at a low energy cost.

About Nano Labs Corp.

Nano Labs Corp. (CTLE) is a nanotechnology research and development company which began during October 2012, but is able to access resources that encompass nearly 30 years of research and development in nanotechnology as well as hundreds of peer-reviewed and published research papers and other scholarly material. The Company’s research and development team of scientists, designers, and engineers is focused on creating a portfolio of advanced products that could provide benefits to a variety of industries including: (i) consumer products, (ii) energy, (iii) materials, and (iv) healthcare. Through the use and integration of proprietary nano compounds, our goal is to evolve common products into new, revolutionary products in order to make the world a better place. Nano Labs shares are traded on the OTC Bulletin Board in the United States under the ticker CTLE. For more information, please visit www.NanoLabs.us.

The Nano Labs Corp. logo is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/newsroom/prs/?pkgid=16293

Forward looking statements

This press release contains forward-looking information within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1993 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and is subject to the safe harbor created by those laws. These forward-looking statements are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that are subject to significant uncertainties that involve known and unknown risks, many of which are beyond our control and are not guarantees of future performance. Actual outcomes and results could materially differ from what is expressed, implied, or forecasted in any such forward-looking statements and any such difference may be caused by risk factors listed from time to time in the Company’s news releases and/or its filings with the OTC Bulletin Board or as a result of other factors.


Nano Labs Corp. Bernardo Camacho Chavarria President 1 (888) 806-2315

Flexible, light solar cells could provide new opportunities

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8David L. Chandler, MIT News Office
MIT researchers develop a new approach using graphene sheets coated with nanowires.
MIT researchers have produced a new kind of photovoltaic cell based on sheets of flexible graphene coated with a layer of nanowires. The approach could lead to low-cost, transparent and flexible solar cells that could be deployed on windows, roofs or other surfaces.

The new approach is detailed in a report published in the journal Nano Letters, co-authored by MIT postdocs Hyesung Park and Sehoon Chang, associate professor of materials science and engineering Silvija Gradečak, and eight other MIT researchers.Flexible, light solar cells could provide new opportunities

While most of today’s solar cells are made of silicon, these remain expensive because the silicon is generally highly purified and then made into crystals that are sliced thin. Many researchers are exploring alternatives, such as nanostructured or hybrid solar cells; indium tin oxide (ITO) is used as a transparent electrode in these new solar cells.

“Currently, ITO is the material of choice for transparent electrodes,” Gradečak says, such as in the touch screens now used on smartphones. But the indium used in that compound is expensive, while graphene is made from ubiquitous carbon.

The new material, Gradečak says, may be an alternative to ITO. In addition to its lower cost, it provides other advantages, including flexibility, low weight, mechanical strength and chemical robustness.

Building semiconducting nanostructures directly on a pristine graphene surface without impairing its electrical and structural properties has been challenging due to graphene’s stable and inert structure, Gradečak explains. So her team used a series of polymer coatings to modify its properties, allowing them to bond a layer of zinc oxide nanowires to it, and then an overlay of a material that responds to light waves — either lead-sulfide quantum dots or a type of polymer called P3HT.

Despite these modifications, Gradečak says, graphene’s innate properties remain intact, providing significant advantages in the resulting hybrid material.

“We’ve demonstrated that devices based on graphene have a comparable efficiency to ITO,” she says — in the case of the quantum-dot overlay, an overall power conversion efficiency of 4.2 percent — less than the efficiency of general purpose silicon cells, but competitive for specialized applications. “We’re the first to demonstrate graphene-nanowire solar cells without sacrificing device performance.”

In addition, unlike the high-temperature growth of other semiconductors, a solution-based process to deposit zinc oxide nanowires on graphene electrodes can be done entirely at temperatures below 175 degrees Celsius, says Chang, a postdoc in MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE) and a lead author of the paper. Silicon solar cells are typically processed at significantly higher temperatures.

The manufacturing process is highly scalable, adds Park, the other lead author and a postdoc in DMSE and in MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. The graphene is synthesized through a process called chemical vapor deposition and then coated with the polymer layers. “The size is not a limiting factor, and graphene can be transferred onto various target substrates such as glass or plastic,” Park says.

Gradečak cautions that while the scalability for solar cells hasn’t been demonstrated yet — she and her colleagues have only made proof-of-concept devices a half-inch in size — she doesn’t foresee any obstacles to making larger sizes. “I believe within a couple of years we could see [commercial] devices” based on this technology, she says.

László Forró, a professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, in Switzerland, who was not associated with this research, says that the idea of using graphene as a transparent electrode was “in the air already,” but had not actually been realized.

“In my opinion this work is a real breakthrough,” Forró says. “Excellent work in every respect.”

He cautions that “the road is still long to get into real applications, there are many problems to be solved,” but adds that “the quality of the research team around this project … guarantees the success.”

The work also involved MIT professors Moungi Bawendi, Mildred Dresselhaus, Vladimir Bulovic and Jing Kong; graduate students Joel Jean and Jayce Cheng; postdoc Paulo Araujo; and affiliate Mingsheng Wang. It was supported by the Eni-MIT Alliance Solar Frontiers Program, and used facilities provided by the MIT Center for Materials Science Engineering, which is supported by the National Science Foundation.

Thinfilm Demonstrates First Integrated Printed Electronic System

Posted: Dec 21st, 2012

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8(Nanowerk News) Thin Film Electronics ASA announced the  first proof-of-concept prototype of an integrated printed electronic tag based  on rewritable memory. The printed electronic label, consisting of printed  memory, sensor and logic, detects that critical temperature thresholds have been  exceeded and records data digitally for later retrieval and display.
Such labels can deliver item-level tracking of quality data for  goods such as pharmaceuticals and perishable foods. The Thinfilm integrated  system shows how low-cost, disposable printed electronic technology will provide  information about product history based on data stored in Thinfilm Memory™.
“Integration of functionality is one of the most compelling  benefits of printed electronics. Demonstrating an integrated, interactive  prototype tag is a significant commercial breakthrough for the printed  electronics industry. The Thinfilm system prototype shows that multiple  electronic functions can be delivered on an electronic, disposable tag,” said  Raghu Das, IDTechEx.
Three different printed devices—memory, logic, and temperature  sensor—were shown to work together sensing a temperature threshold and writing  to memory. The gathered data triggered a display through external circuitry to  illustrate the tags’ expected commercial functionality.  Integrating memory,  logic, sensors and displays using printed circuitry is critical for the delivery  of cost-effective, mass-produced printed electronic devices.
“The promise of printed electronics rests on its ability to  catalyze the coming technology wave often referred to as the Internet of Things.  Making electronics ubiquitous requires not only cheap components but also ways  of integrating them. The ability to store, process, and communicate local  information makes ordinary objects aware of their environment. These smart  objects become our agents, gathering actionable data, and displaying it when we  need to get involved. Whether sensing temperature or communicating other  hazards, Thinfilm sensor tags follow the product to the last mile, in  applications where conventional electronic measurement systems often cannot be  deployed, either because of cost or a lack of tailorability to individual  product packaging,” said Davor Sutija, CEO of Thinfilm.
The Thinfilm Temperature Sensor prototype integrates components  developed by several Thinfilm eco-system partners. PARC led development of the  organic logic circuitry within design rules and functional specifications  provided by Thinfilm. PST Sensors provided the fully printed thermistor, and  ACREO supplied the electrochromic display.
“This demonstration is a key step towards Intelligent Packaging,  and contributes directly to the Bemis Intelligent Packaging Platform that we are  creating with Thinfilm,” said Don Nimis, President of Shield Pack, a division of  Bemis Company, Inc., one of the world’s leaders in food and medical products  packaging. “Intelligent Packaging will help Bemis customers monitor the quality  of their products individually and consistently.”
In this video, hot and cold objects are  respectively placed on a temperature sensor. When the temperature exceeds a  pre-designed threshold, the fact is stored into the Thinfilm Memory through  organic logic. An ultra-low-cost display is used to show whether the temperature  threshold was exceeded.
Additional circuitry, including a timer function and wireless  communication, will be added to the system. Commercial availability is expected  by the end of 2014.
Thinfilm’s printed electronic technology has been singled out  for praise from a variety of sources. Most recently Thinfilm won the World  Technology Innovation Award for materials and was named a runner-up for the  Technology Innovation Award for Semiconductors by The Wall Street Journal. This  recognition follows important printed electronics industry awards earlier this  year from both the FlexTech Alliance and IDTechEx. Thinfilm was also recently  recognized by GigaOm as one of the 15 Most Innovative Companies in mobile.
Portions of this work were funded by Innovation Norway, and by  Flextech Alliance. Thinfilm and its partners gratefully acknowledge their  support.
About Thinfilm
Thin Film Electronics ASA is a leader in the development of  printed electronics. The first to commercialize printed rewritable memory,  Thinfilm is creating printed system products that will include memory, sensing,  display and wireless communication—at a cost-per-functionality unmatched by any  other electronic technology.  Thinfilm’s roadmap of system products integrates  technology from a strong and growing ecosystem of partners to enable the  Internet of Things by bringing intelligence to disposable goods. Company  headquarters are in Oslo, Norway, with product development in Linköping, Sweden,  sales offices in San Francisco, USA, and Tokyo, Japan, and manufacturing in  Pyongtaek, South Korea. http://www.thinfilm.no
Source: Thinfilm (press  release)

Quantum Materials Corporation Receives Prestigious Frost and Sullivan Award

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8Quantum Materials Corp Receives 2012 North American Enabling Technology Award For Advanced Quantum Dot Manufacturing From Frost & Sullivan.



CARSON CITY, Nev., Dec. 18, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — Quantum Materials Corporation (QMC), the first manufacturer of Tetrapod Quantum Dots by a mass production continuous flow chemistry process, has been honored with Frost & Sullivan’s 2012 North American Enabling Technology Award for Advanced Quantum Dot Manufacturing. QMC’s “enabling technology” overcomes all quantum dot industry problems by delivering high-quality, lower-cost, and uniform quantum dots in commercial quantities for the reliable supply necessary for industrial production commitments. 

Frost & Sullivan rated QMC higher than competitors in all criteria, specifically highlighting QMC’s low cost of manufacture, mass-production capability, potential for market acceptance, and variety of hybrid quantum dots before concluding, “QMC’s QD technology is poised for large-scale adoption in diverse fields, such as lighting, displays, solar energy, sensors, optoelectronics, and flexible electronics.”

Frost & Sullivan Senior Research Analyst Shyam Krishnan said, “There is no question that the future is very bright for quantum dots. Their ability to interact with photons, electrons, and chemicals to make useful energy, light or other nanoscale actions is as yet unmatched among nanoparticles. Quantum Materials Corporation’s patented quantum dot synthesis that allows scalable mass production will allow them to service a multitude of industries in the near future. That is the reason they have earned the Frost & Sullivan 2012 North America Enabling Technology Award for Advanced Quantum Dot Manufacture.”

Frost & Sullivan is in its 50th year in business with a global research organization of 1,800 analysts and consultants who monitor more than 300 industries and 250,000 companies. The company’s research philosophy originates with the CEO’s 360-Degree Perspective™, which serves as the foundation of its TEAM Research™ methodology. This unique approach enables us to determine how best-in-class companies worldwide manage growth, innovation and leadership.

The total market for quantum dots is expected to reach $7.48 billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 55.2 percent from 2012 to 2022 according to the market research report, “Quantum Dots Market – Global Forecast & Analysis (2012–2022)” by MarketsandMarkets.

“QMC is grateful for this exceptional recognition by Frost & Sullivan of our technologies, innovative manufacturing abilities, and focus to bring quantum dot commercialization forward in partnership with other advanced technology companies,” stated Stephen B. Squires, Quantum Materials Corp CEO and founder. “We are developing solid working relationships with like-minded companies, exploring this new ability to go from drawing board into production years before any recent forecast has predicted it would be possible.”

quantum material corp logoQUANTUM MATERIALS CORPORATION has a steadfast vision that advanced technology is the solution to global issues related to cost, efficiency and increasing energy usage. Quantum dot semiconductors enable a new level of performance in a wide array of established consumer and industrial products, including low-cost flexible solar cells, low-power lighting and displays, and biomedical research applications. Quantum Materials Corporation intends to invigorate these markets through cost reduction and moving laboratory discovery to commercialization with volume manufacturing methods to establish a growing line of innovative, high-performance products


Nanoparticles Enable Earlier Cancer Diagnosis

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8 From Science Daily, Dec. 17, 2012 — Finding ways to diagnose cancer earlier could greatly improve the chances of survival for many patients. One way to do this is to look for specific proteins secreted by cancer cells, which circulate in the bloodstream. However, the quantity of these biomarkers is so low that detecting them has proven difficult.

 A new technology developed at MIT may help to make biomarker detection much easier. The researchers, led by Sangeeta Bhatia, have developed nanoparticles that can home to a tumor and interact with cancer proteins to produce thousands of biomarkers, which can then be easily detected in the patient’s urine.

This biomarker amplification system could also be used to monitor disease progression and track how tumors respond to treatment, says Bhatia, the John and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT.

“There’s a desperate search for biomarkers, for early detection or disease prognosis, or looking at how the body responds to therapy,” says Bhatia, who is also a member of MIT’s David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. She adds that the search has been complicated because genomic studies have revealed that many cancers, such as breast cancer, are actually groups of several diseases with different genetic signatures.

The MIT team, working with researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, described the new technology in a paper appearing in Nature Biotechnology on Dec. 16. Lead author of the paper is Gabriel Kwong, a postdoc in MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science and the Koch Institute.

Amplifying cancer signals

Cancer cells produce many proteins not found in healthy cells. However, these proteins are often so diluted in the bloodstream that they are nearly impossible to identify. A recent study from Stanford University researchers found that even using the best existing biomarkers for ovarian cancer, and the best technology to detect them, an ovarian tumor would not be found until eight to 10 years after it formed.

“The cell is making biomarkers, but it has limited production capacity,” Bhatia says. “That’s when we had this ‘aha’ moment: What if you could deliver something that could amplify that signal?”

Serendipitously, Bhatia’s lab was already working on nanoparticles that could be put to use detecting cancer biomarkers. Originally intended as imaging agents for tumors, the particles interact with enzymes known as proteases, which cleave proteins into smaller fragments.

Cancer cells often produce large quantities of proteases known as MMPs. These proteases help cancer cells escape their original locations and spread uncontrollably by cutting through proteins of the extracellular matrix, which normally holds cells in place.

The researchers coated their nanoparticles with peptides (short protein fragments) targeted by several of the MMP proteases. The treated nanoparticles accumulate at tumor sites, making their way through the leaky blood vessels that typically surround tumors. There, the proteases cleave hundreds of peptides from the nanoparticles, releasing them into the bloodstream.

The peptides rapidly accumulate in the kidneys and are excreted in the urine, where they can be detected using mass spectrometry.

This new system is an exciting approach to overcoming the problem of biomarker scarcity in the body, says Sanjiv Gambhir, chairman of the Department of Radiology at Stanford University School of Medicine. “Instead of being dependent on the body to naturally shed biomarkers, you’re sampling the site of interest and causing biomarkers that you engineered to be released,” says Gambhir, who was not part of the research team.

Distinctive signatures

To make the biomarker readings as precise as possible, the researchers designed their particles to express 10 different peptides, each of which is cleaved by a different one of the dozens of MMP proteases. Each of these peptides is a different size, making it possible to distinguish them with mass spectrometry. This should allow researchers to identify distinct signatures associated with different types of tumors.

In this study, the researchers tested their nanoparticles’ ability to detect the early stages of colorectal cancer in mice, and to monitor the progression of liver fibrosis.

Liver fibrosis is an accumulation of scarring in response to liver injury or chronic liver disease. Patients with this condition have to be regularly monitored by biopsy, which is expensive and invasive, to make sure they are getting the right treatment. In mice, the researchers found that the nanoparticles could offer much more rapid feedback than biopsies.

They also found that the nanoparticles could accurately reveal the early formation of colorectal tumors. In ongoing studies, the team is studying the particles’ ability to measure tumor response to chemotherapy and to detect metastasis.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Kathy and Curt Marble Cancer Research Fund.

Nanotechnology applications and nanomaterials are being applied across a raft of industries


Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/9g39vg/the_global)       has announced the addition of the “The       Global Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Industry: Stage of Development,       Global Activity and Market Opportunities” report to their       offering.

Nanotechnology applications and nanomaterials are being applied across a raft of industries due to their outstanding magnetic, optical, catalytic and electronic properties. There are already established market for nanomaterials including titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, silicon oxide nanopowders and carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, nanosilver, nanoclays, quantum dots and nanoporous materials driven by demand from applications in filtration, electronics, cosmetics, energy, medicine, chemicals, coatings and catalysts. Recent breakthroughs have heralded new market opportunities in graphene and nanocellulose. This new 696-page report from Future Market, Inc., the world’s leading provider of nanotechnology and nanomaterials information and publisher of Nanotech Magazine,  provides a comprehensive insight into all aspects of the market for these materials.


– Comprehensive data and forecasts for the global nanotechnology and nanomaterials market to 2019. Nanomaterials covered include aluminium  oxide nanopowders, antimony tin, bismuth oxide, carbon nanotubes, cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, fullerenes and POSS, graphene, graphyne, graphdiyne, graphane, indium, iron oxide, magnesium oxide, manganese oxide, molybdenum disulphide, nanocellulose, nanoclays, nanofibers, nanosilver, nickel oxide, nano-precipitated calcium carbonate, nanoporous materials, quantum dots, silicone, silicon oxide, titanium dioxide, yttrium oxide, zinc oxide and zirconium oxide

– Technology roadmaps/commercialization timelines to 2019, by       nanomaterials and by market

– Financial estimates for the markets nanotechnology and nanomaterials will impact including aerospace and aviation, automotive, civil engineering and construction, exterior protection, communications, hygiene, cleaning and sanitary, electronics and semiconductors, energy, environment, food, agricultural, beverage, marine, medical and life sciences, military and defence, packaging, paper, personal care, plastics and rubber, printing, product security and anti-counterfeiting, sensors, sporting and consumer goods, textiles, tools and metals

– Latest global regulations for nanomaterials

– Patent analysis

– Global government funding and programmes

– Nanomaterials market size by tons and by end user demand

– Over 500 tables and figures

– Over 1000 company and research centre profiles.

Key Topics Covered:




  •         3.1 Applications of nanomaterials
  •         3.2 Production estimates 2012
  •         3.3 Demand by material type and market
  •         3.4 ALUMINIUM OXIDE
  •         3.5 ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE
  •         3.6 BISMUTH OXIDE
  •         3.7 CARBON NANOTUBES
  •         3.8 CERIUM OXIDE
  •         3.9 COBALT OXIDE
  •         3.10 COPPER OXIDE
  •         3.11 FULLERENES AND POSS
  •         3.12 GRAPHENE
  •         3.13 GRAPHYNE
  •         3.14 GRAPHDIYNE
  •         3.15 GRAPHANE
  •         3.16 INDIUM
  •         3.17 IRON OXIDE
  •         3.18 MAGNESIUM OXIDE
  •         3.19 MANGANESE OXIDE
  •         3.21 NANOCELLULOSE
  •         3.22 NANOCLAYS
  •         3.23 NANOFIBERS
  •         3.25 NANOSILVER
  •         3.26 NICKEL OXIDE
  •         3.28 QUANTUM DOTS
  •         3.29 SILICENE
  •         3.30 SILICON OXIDE


  •         4.1 Aerospace and aviation
  •         4.2 Automotive
  •         4.3 Civil engineering, construction and exterior protectioon
  •         4.4 Communications
  •         4.5 Hygiene, cleaning and sanitary
  •         4.6 Electronics
  •         4.7 Energy
  •         4.8 Environment
  •         4.9 Food, agriculture and beverage
  •         4.10 Marine
  •         4.11 Medical and life sciences
  •         4.12 Military and defence
  •         4.13 Packaging
  •         4.14 Paper
  •         4.15 Personal care
  •         4.16 Plastics and rubber
  •         4.17 Printing
  •         4.18 Product security and anti-counterfeiting
  •         4.19 Sensors
  •         4.20 Sporting and consumer goods
  •         4.21 Textiles
  •         4.22 Tools and metals





  •         8.3 AUTOMOTIVE
  •         8.4 COMMUNICATIONS
  •         8.8 ENERGY
  •         8.9 ENVIRONMENT
  •         8.11 MARINE
  •         8.13 MILITARY AND DEFENCE
  •         8.14 PACKAGING
  •         8.15 PAPER
  •         8.16 PERSONAL CARE
  •         8.17 PLASTICS AND RUBBER
  •         8.18 PRINTING
  •         8.20 SENSORS
  •         8.22 TEXTILES
  •         8.23 TOOLS AND METALS


For more information visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/9g39vg/the_global


Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager.