Using Nanotechnology to Control the formation of ice on surfaces


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Control of ice growth kinetics. (A) Hexagonal ice composed by two basal facets (c-axis) and six prism facets (a-axis). (B) Random and aligned orientations of c-axes were found on trapezoid-shaped microgrooves (TMG) and V-shaped microgrooves (VMG) surfaces, respectively. (C) Ice embryos appear on the side walls, the edges, and the valleys of groove on TMG surfaces, resulting in different orientations of ice crystals. On the other hand, an ice embryo forms only at the valley of grooves on the VMG surface, leading to the confined ice orientation. Scale bars are 15 µm. (Reprinted with permission by American Chemical Society) (click on image to enlarge)

In recent years, researchers working on de-icing and anti-icing strategies have been inspired by biology and nanotechnology to develop nanocoatings and other nanostructured surfaces.

Researchers now have demonstrated the ability to spatially control frost nucleation (ice formation from water vapor) and to manipulate ice crystal growth kinetics.”The spatial control of icing in the condensation-freezing process and through the coating of hydrophilic materials has been demonstrated before,” Ming-Chang Lu, Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at National Chiao Tung University said, “However, the ice nucleation control and the confinement of ice crystal growth direction through manipulating roughness scale have not been reported in the literature.”

In previous work, Lu and his team demonstrated that heterogeneous nucleation of condensation could be spatially controlled by manipulating roughness scale (Advanced Functional Materials, “Spatial Control of Heterogeneous Nucleation on the Superhydrophobic Nanowire Array”).

 

ricedeicerga-052416Read more About Nanotechnology and Deicing

Rice University: Graphene Nano-Ribbons Demonstrate Deicing Capabilities: Dr. James Tour

 

 

 

 

This motivated them to further explore whether the same control could be achieved in the icing process.Indeed, as they recently have reported in ACS Nano (“Control of Ice Formation”), they found that a surface’s anti-icing (preventing ice formation) and deicing performances could be promoted through the control of nucleation and the confinement of the ice crystal growth direction.The scientists achieved control of nucleation and the confinement of the crystal growth kinetics by manipulating local free energy barrier for nucleation.Moreover, the growth kinetics of ice can also be altered by adjusting the shape of the microgroove of the surface: Ice stacked along the direction of the V-shaped microgroove, whereas it grew in random directions on the trapezoid-shaped microgroove.As the researchers demonstrate in their paper, the spatial control of frost formation and the confinement of ice-growing kinetics improved the anti-icing and deicing performances.”We have shown that ice formation and ice crystal growth could be manipulated by tailoring surface roughness scale,” notes Lu.

 

“We believe that our results could be potentially applied to alleviate the icing issues in many industrial systems, such as, power transmission system, telecommunication system, heat exchangers, aircraft, etc.”In this work, the team systematically investigated – under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) – frosting and deicing processes on a plain silicon surface, a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array-coated surface, and V-shaped and trapezoid-shaped microgroove patterned surfaces.Nucleation is the first step of the phase transition during freezing. The team’s goal is to gain complete control of the ice formation process including nucleation, crystal growth, and ice spreading.”The results we demonstrated were on a Si surface and on a laboratory chip; in my opinion, the future directions are to explore whether the phenomena could be realized on other materials and on a larger system,” concludes Lu. “The ultimate goal is to have fully controls of icing and deicing processes. Therefore, it could be applied to alleviate the adverse effect caused by global warming, e.g., the loss of ice sheets.”

Original Post by Micheal Berger

Two New Technologies that could charge your phone in seconds, Power the ioT (Internet of Things) and Power a New Generation of EF Drones (extended flight) and EL Marine Batteries (extended life)


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   Image: UCF

Technology I: University of Central Florida

Leaving your phone plugged in for hours could become a thing of the past, thanks to a new type of battery technology that charges in seconds and lasts for over a week.

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While it probably won’t be commercially available for a years, the researchers said it has the potential to be used in phones, wearables and electric vehicles.

“If they were to replace the batteries with these supercapacitors, you could charge your mobile phone in a few seconds and you wouldn’t need to charge it again for over a week,” said Nitin Choudhary, a UCF postdoctoral associate, who conducted much of the research, published in the academic journal ACS Nano.

How does it work?

Unlike conventional batteries, supercapacitors store electricity statically on their surface which means they can charge and deliver energy rapidly. But supercapacitors have a major shortcoming: they need large surface areas in order to hold lots of energy.

To overcome the problem, the researchers developed supercapacitors built with millions of nano-wires and shells made from two-dimensional materials only a few atoms thick, which allows for super-fast charging. Their prototype is only about the size of a fingernail.

“For small electronic devices, our materials are surpassing the conventional ones worldwide in terms of energy density, power density and cyclic stability,” Choudhary said.

Cyclic stability refers to how many times a battery can be charged, drained and recharged before it starts to degrade. For lithium-ion batteries, this is typically fewer than 1,500 times.

Supercapacitors with two-dimensional materials can be recharged a few thousand times. But the researchers say their prototype still works like new even after being recharged 30,000 times.

 

wearable-textiles-100616-0414_powdes_ti_f1Those that use the new materials could be used in phones, tablets and other electronic devices, as well as electric vehicles. And because they’re flexible, it could mean a significant development for wearables.

 

 

 

Technology II: Rice University

391f84fd-6427-4c06-9fb4-3d3c8a433f41A new company has been formed (with exclusive licensing rights) to exploit and commercialize the Next Generation Super-Capacitors and Batteries. The opportunity is based on Nanoporous-Nickel Flexible Thin-form, Scalable Super Capacitors and Si-Nanowire Battery Technologies, developed by Rice University and Dr. James M. Tour, PhD – named “One of the Fifty (50) most influential scientists in the World today” is the inventor, patent holder and early stage developer. tourportrait2015-300

tenka-flex-med-082616-picture1Identified Key Markets and Commercial Applications 

  • Medical Devices and Wearable Electronics
  • Drone/Marine Batteries and Power Banks
  • Powered Smart Cards and Motor Cycle/ EV Batteries
  • Sensors & Power Units for the iOT (Internet of Things) [Flexible Form, Energy Dense]  

 

The Coming Power Needs of the iOTiot-picture1

  • The IoT is populated with billions of tiny devices.
  • They’re smart.
  • They’re cheap.
  • They’re mobile.
  • They need to communicate.
  • Their numbers growing at 20%-30%/Year.

The iOT is Hungry for POWER! All this demands supercapacitors that can pack a lot of affordable power in very small volumes …Ten times more than today’s best supercapacitors can provide.

 

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Highly Scalable – Energy Dense – Flexible Form – Rapid Charge

 Problem 1: Current capacitors and batteries being supplied to the relevant markets lack the sustainable power density, discharge and recharge cycle, warranty life combined with a ‘flexible form factor’ to scale and satisfy the identified industry need for commercial viability & performance.

tenka-smartcard-picture1Solution I: (Minimal Value Product) Tenka is currently providing full, functional Super Capacitor prototypes to an initial customer in the Digital Powered Smart Card industry and has received two (2) phased Contingent Purchase Orders during the First Year Operating Cycle for 120,000 Units and 1,200,000 Units respectively.

Solution II: For Drone/ Marine Batteries – Power Banks & Medical Devices

  • Double the current ‘Time Aloft’ (1 hour+)drone1
  • Reduces operating costs
  • Marine batteries – Less weight, longer life, flex form
  • Provides Fast Recharging,  Extended Life Warranty.
  • Full -battery prototypes being developed

Small batteries will be produced first for Powered Digital Smart Cards (In addition to the MVP Super Caps) solving packaging before scaling up drone battery operations. Technical risks are mainly associated with packaging and scaling.

The Operational Plan is to take full advantage of the gained ‘know how’ (Trade Secrets and Processes) of scaling and packaging solutions developed for the Powered Digital Smart Card and the iOT, to facilitate the roll-out of these additional Application Opportunities. Leveraging gained knowledge from operations is projected to significantly increase margins and profitability. We will begin where the Economies of Scale and Entry Point make sense (cents)!

tenka-mission-082516-picture1

“We are building and Energy Storage Company starting Small & Growing Big!”

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