Super Capacitors Could Make the Tesla ‘Battery Model for an EV World’ Obsolete: Videos



Tesla’s growth has been built on its pioneering battery technology but they’re slow to charge, have limited lifetimes and are heavy. The latest research on supercapacitors does away with all of that and may mean ‘Tesla Battery Model for an EV World’ is a losing bet (Watch Videos Below)

Introduction

Transportation is the largest consumer of oil and the globally, it’s the biggest source of pollution, greenhouse gases, soot and fine particulates; gasoline and diesel have fuelled global transport and been the lifeblood of the international oil majors and national oil companies.

That, however, may be changing. Oil’s power density and affordable price has made alternatives non-starters, pushed many mass transit systems to bankruptcy, and made auto, tyre, road construction, and insurance companies rich.

Fuel energy density including supercapacitors

The Tesla effect

Then came Tesla, for the first time offering a slick, high-performance car with reasonable range.

Currently too expensive for the mass market, Tesla has nevertheless challenged the internal combustion engine (ICE) industry and forced virtually all car markers to get into electric vehicles.

With a $5 billion gigafactory just completed in July 2016 near Reno, Nevada. Tesla is promising to move mainstream, offering more affordable cars with decent range. Tesla-Gigafactory-Nevada

That is all wonderful. But Tesla and all other electric and hybrid cars still suffer from lack of charging infrastructure, and even when that is in place, drivers will have to take long breaks on long drives to recharge their batteries. 
Depending on the details, 90 minutes or more are typically needed to more-or-less recharge an empty car battery, an annoying wait compared to a five-minute fillup at the corner gas station.

 

Tesla’s growth has been built on its pioneering battery technology but they’re slow to charge, have limited lifetimes and are heavy. The latest research on supercapacitors does away with all of that and may mean ‘Tesla Battery Model for an EV World’ is a losing bet


Battery Woes

Tesla Battery Pack 2014-08-19-19.10.42-1280Moreover, even with Tesla’s slick design, the batteries are heavy and can only be charged/discharged so many times, after which their performance drops. Trucks and heavy-duty vehicles pose even more difficult challenges if they are not recharged frequently – not always convenient or practical. Batteries, in other words, are not a perfect substitute for cheap petrol which is available nearly everywhere you go.

What would be ideal is a light, inexpensive battery that can pack large amounts of energy in a small space, can be charged more or less instantly, and discharged more or less indefinitely without loss of performance. 

That would be the holy grail of storage, not only challenging the ICEs but also making Tesla’s gigafactory virtually obsolete before it starts mass production.


Super Potential for Supercapacitors

A new generation of supercapacitors made from cheap and plentiful material – now in laboratories – is expected to become commercial in three to five years. According to UCLA Professor Richard Kaner, the company he is affiliated with, Nanotech Energy, is using graphene as the basic medium for storing energy. (Also See Video for ‘Tenka Energy’ below)

As the technology moves out of the laboratory, he expects it to initially find a role in high-value applications such as mobile phones and computers, followed by other applications such as electric vehicles.

Supercapacitors Recharge Rate

The ability to fast-charge a supercapacitor in, say, two minutes or so, will solve the range anxiety associated with current EVs. 
Imagine pulling into an electric charging station and getting more or less fully recharged in the amount of time it takes to fill up your tank with gas. Who needs clunky, noisy, polluting cars, or even Tesla batteries?

The same fast-charging supercapacitors can power mass transit buses in cities around the world. If the bus’ supercapacitor can be charged in two minutes or less, then every bus stop can be a charging station, allowing the bus to travel long distances without ever running out of juice. That would be a game changer.

Tesla, which is facing many daunting deadlines and competition from multiple directions, may find that its gigafactory is a losing bet if supercapacitors come to deliver as their proponents claim.

Now THAT … That would be yet another game changer!

From ‘The Energy Analyst’

 

Watch: Video Presentation of New ‘Tenka Power Max SuperCap’

Advertisements

Volvo goes ALL EV/ Hybrid by 2019 ~ Is it a BIG Deal? + Video NextGen ‘Battery Pack’ that could propel Tesla ‘S’ 2X farther at 1/2 the Cost


Still from animation - Mild hybrid, 48 volts

Original Report from IDTechEX

Volvo Cars has been in the news recently in relation to their announcement this Wednesday on their decision to leave the internal combustion engine only based automotive industry.   The Chinese-European company announced that from 2019 all their vehicles will be either pure electric or hybrid electric. In this way it has been argued the company is making a bold move towards electrification of vehicles. Volvo to capture potential market in China The company will launch a pure electric car in 2019 and that is a great move indeed, considering that the company has been owned by Chinese vehicle manufacturer Geely since 2010.

The Chinese electric vehicle market has been booming in the last years reaching a sales level of 350,000 plug-in EVs (pure electric and plug-in hybrid electric cars) in 2016. The Chinese plug-in EV market grew 300% from 2014 to 2015 but cooled down to 69% growth in 2016 vs 2015, still pushing a triple digit growth in pure electric cars. The Chinese government has announced that in 2017 sales will reach 800,000 NEV  (new energy vehicles including passenger and bus, both pure electric and hybrid electric).   IDTechEx believes that China will not make it to that level, but will definitely push the figures close to that mark.

We think that the global plug-in electric vehicle market will surpass 1 million sales per year for the first time at the end of 2017.   Until recently this market has been mostly dominated by Chinese manufacturers, being BYD the best seller of electric cars in the country with 100,000 plug-in EVs sold in 2016. Tesla polemically could not penetrate the market but in 2016 sold around 11,000 units.  

Whilst the owner of Volvo Cars, Geely, is active in China selling around 17,000 pure electric cars per year, it might be that Volvo has now realized that they can leverage on their brand in the Chinese premium market to catch the huge growth opportunity in China and need to participate as soon as possible.   More information on market forecasts can be found in IDTechEx Research’s report Electric Vehicles 2017-2037: Forecasts, Analysis and Opportunities.

Volvo 4 Sedan volvo-40-series-concepts-16-1080x720

Is Volvo Cars’ move a revolutionary one? Not really, as technically speaking the company is not entirely making a bold movement to only 100% “strong” hybrid electric and pure electric vehicles.   This is because the company will launch in 2019 a “mild” hybrid electric vehicles, this is also known in the industry as 48V hybrid electric platform. This is a stepping stone between traditional internal combustion engine companies and “strong” hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius.

The 48V platform is being adopted by many automotive manufacturers, not only Volvo. OEMs like Continental developed this platform to provide a “bridge technology”  towards full EVs for automotive manufacturers, providing 6 to 20 kW electric assistance. By comparison, a full hybrid system typically offers 20-40-kW and a plug-in hybrid, 50-90 kW.   Volvo had already launched the first diesel plug-in hybrid in 2012 and the company will launch a new plug-in hybrid platform in 2018 in addition to the launch of the 2019 pure electric vehicle platform.   Going only pure electric and plug-in hybrid electric would be really revolutionary.   See IDTechEx Research’s report Mild Hybrid 48V Vehicles 2017-2027 for more information on 48V platforms.

Tesla Model 3hqdefaultAdditional Information: The Tesla Model ‘S’

The Tesla Model S is a full-sized all-electric five-door, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on 22 June 2012.[14] It scored a perfect 5.0 NHTSA automobile safety rating.[15] The EPA official rangefor the 2017 Model S 100D,[16] which is equipped with a 100 kWh(360 MJbattery pack, is 335 miles (539 km), higher than any other electric car.[17] The EPA rated the 2017 90D Model S’s energy consumption at 200.9 watt-hours per kilometer (32.33 kWh/100 mi or 20.09 kWh/100 km) for a combined fuel economy of 104 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.26 L/100 km or 125 mpg‑imp).[18] In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S to closely match that of the Model X. As of July 2017, the following versions are available: 75, 75D, 90D, 100D and P100D.[19]

 

Tesla Battery Pack 2014-08-19-19.10.42-1280

 

For more specific details on the updated Tesla Battery Pack go here:

Teardown of new 100 kWh Tesla battery pack reveals new cooling system and 102 kWh capacity

 

 

 

Volvo 3 Truck imagesA radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors.   Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature  by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits.   These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths globally in 2015.

The authors conclude that more stringent standards are required in order to avoid 174,000 premature deaths globally in 2040.   Diesel cars account for over 50 percent of all new registrations in Europe, making the region by far the world’s biggest diesel market. Volvo Cars, sells 90 percent of its XC 90 off roaders in Europe with diesel engines.   “From today’s perspective, we will not develop any more new generation diesel engines,” said Volvo’s CEO Hakan Samuelsson told German’s Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in an interview .   Samuelsson declared  that Volvo Cars aims to sell 1 million “electrified” cars by 2025, nevertheless he refused to be drawn on when Volvo Cars will sell its last diesel powered vehicle.

Goldman Sachs believes  a regulatory crackdown could add 300 euros ($325) per engine to diesel costs that are already some 1,300 euros above their petrol-powered equivalents, as carmakers race to bring real NOx emissions closer to their much lower test-bench scores. Scandinavia’s vision of a CO2-free economy Volvo’s decision should also be placed in a wider context regarding the transition to an environmentally sustainable economy.

Scandinavia’s paper industry has made great strides towards marketing itself as green and eco-aware in the last decades, so much so that countries like Norway have tripled the amount of standing wood in forests compared to 100 years ago. Energy supply is also an overarching theme, with each one of the four Scandinavian countries producing more than 39% of their electricity with renewables (Finland 39%, Sweden and Denmark 56%, Norway 98%). Finally, strong public incentives have made it possible for electric vehicles to become a mainstream market in Norway, where in 2016, one in four cars sold was a plug-in electric, either pure or hybrid.   It is then of no surprise that the first battery Gigafactory announcement in Europe came from a Swedish company called Northvolt (previously SGF Energy).

The Li-ion factory will open in 4 steps, with each one adding 8 GWh of production capacity. This gives a projected final output of 32 GWh, but if higher energy cathodes are developed, 40-50 GWh capacity can be envisioned. A site has not yet been identified, but the choice has been narrowed down to 6-7 locations, all of them in the Scandinavian region. The main reasons to establish a Gigafactory there boil down to the low electricity prices (hydroelectric energy), presence of relevant mining sites, and the presence of local know-how from the pulp & paper industry.   After a long search for a European champion in the EV market, it finally seems that Sweden has accepted to take the lead, and compete with giants like BYD and rising stars like Tesla. This could be the wake-up call for many other European car makers, which have been rather bearish towards EV acceptance despite many bold announcements.   To learn more about IDTechEx’s view on electric vehicles, and our projections up to 2037, please check our master report on the subject http://www.IDTechEx.com/ev .

Top image source: Volvo Cars Learn more at the next leading event on the topic: Business and Technology Insight Forum. Korea 2017 on 19 – 21 Sep 2017 in Seoul, Korea hosted by IDTechEx.

More Information on ‘NextGen Magnum SuperCap-Battery Pack’ that could propel a Tesla Model ‘S’ 90% farther (almost double) and cost 1/2 (one-half) as much: Video

 

World’s Largest Lithium-Ion Battery System to be Built in Australia by Tesla + Video


AS TESLA MODEL 3 PRODUCTION BEGINS, ELON MUSK ANNOUNCES BIGGEST BATTERY ON OTHER SIDE OF THE WORLD 

You’d think the biggest Tesla news today would be surrounding landmark production of Tesla Model 3 SN1 — aka serial number 1. 



However, news emerged that Elon Musk was on the other side of the world. Wall Street Journal* reports, “Tesla Inc.’s Elon Musk has agreed to build the world’s largest lithium-ion battery system in Australia, an ambitious project that he hopes will show how the technology can help solve energy problems.”


Above: Tesla is planning the world’s biggest battery installation in South Australia (Image: Tesla)




It’s reported that, “The plan is to build a 100-megawatt storage system in the state of South Australia—which has been hit by a string of blackouts over the past year—that will collect power generated by a wind farm built by French energy company Neoen.” Musk emphasized the magnitude of the project, explaining: ““This is not a minor foray into the frontier, this is like going three times further than anyone has gone before.”

Above: More on Tesla’s project in South Australia (Youtube: Jay Weatherill)
It turns out that “Tesla was selected from more than 90 bids to build a storage system for the state, said South Australia Premier Jay Weatherill. The value of the project wasn’t disclosed. The origins of the deal trace back to a Twitter exchange in March between Mr. Musk and local entrepreneur Mike Cannon-Brookes, which led to conversations between Mr. Musk and Mr. Weatherill and Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.”

Above: Tesla CEO Elon Musk and South Australia Premier Jay Weatherill (Twitter: Jay Weatherill)

True to his word, “Mr. Musk pledged to complete the project—which he said will be three times more powerful than any other battery system in the world—within 100 days of signing an agreement or it would be free.” In addition, “Once the project is completed, which Tesla expects will happen by the start of the Australian summer in December, it will be larger than a storage facility in the Southern California desert also built on Tesla batteries.”


Above: Tesla Powerpack installation (Image: Tesla)
According to Tesla, “The project will provide enough power for more than 30,000 homes, about equal to the number of homes that lost power during the blackouts.” Back in Fremont, the Tesla factory will get started on the first-ever production Model 3. Coming off historic rocket launches at SpaceX, chalk up another landmark milestone (or two) for Tesla today — just another week of work for the Iron Man, Elon Musk.

*Source: Wall Street Journal

Large Emissions from the Electric Car (EV) Battery Makers – Tesla an ‘Eco-Villain’?


EV Battery Villans Elfordon-Nevs-700-394-ny-teknik

Electric power: When batteries are eco-villains in the production, according to a new report. Photo: Tomas Oneborg / SvD / TT

Huge hopes tied to electric cars as the solution to automotive climate problem. But the electric car batteries are eco-villains in the production. Several tons of carbon dioxide has been placed, even before the batteries leave the factory.

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute was commissioned by the Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Energy Agency investigated lithium-ion batteries climate impact from a life cycle perspective. There are batteries designed for electric vehicles included in the study. The two authors Lisbeth Dahllöf and Mia Romare has done a meta-study that is reviewed and compiled existing studies.

The report shows that the battery manufacturing leads to high emissions. For every kilowatt hour of storage capacity in the battery generated emissions of 150 to 200 kilos of carbon dioxide already in the factory. The researchers did not study individual bilmärkens batteries, how these produced or the electricity mix they use. But if we understand the great importance of play battery take an example: Two common electric cars on the market, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, the batteries about 30 kWh and 100 kWh.

Even when buying the car emissions have already occurred, corresponding to approximately 5.3 tons and 17.5 tons, the batteries of these sizes. The numbers can be difficult to relate to. As a comparison, a trip for one person round trip from Stockholm to New York by air causes the release of more than 600 kilograms of carbon dioxide, according to the UN organization ICAO calculation.

Another conclusion of the study is that about half the emissions arising from the production of raw materials and half the production of the battery factory. The mining accounts for only a small proportion of between 10-20 percent.

Read more: “The potential electric car the main advantage”

The calculation is based on the assumption that the electricity mix used in the battery factory consists of more than half of the fossil fuels. In Sweden, the power production is mainly of fossil-nuclear and hydropower why lower emissions had been achieved.

The study also concluded that emissions grow almost linearly with the size of the battery, even if it is pinched by the data in that field. It means that a battery of the Tesla-size contributes more than three times as much emissions as the Nissan Leaf size. It is a result that surprised Mia Romare.

– It should have been less linear as the electronics used is not increased to the same extent. But the battery cells are so sensitive as production looks today, she says.

– One conclusion is that you should not run around with unnecessarily large batteries, says Mia Romare

The authors emphasize that a large part of the study has been about finding out what data is available and find out what quality they are. They have in many cases been forced to conclude that it is difficult to compare existing studies together.

 

We’ve been frustrated, but it is also part of the result, says Lisbeth Dahllöf.

His colleague, Mats-Ola Larsson at IVL has made a calculation of how long you have to drive a petrol or diesel before it has released as much carbon dioxide as battery manufacturing has caused. The result was 2.7 years for a battery of the same size as the Nissan Leaf and 8.2 years for a battery of the Tesla-size, based on a series of assumptions (see box below).

– It’s great that companies and authorities for ambitious environmental policies and buying into climate-friendly cars. But these results show that one should consider not to choose an electric car with a bigger battery than necessary, he says, noting that politicians should also take this on in the design of instruments.

An obvious part to look at the life cycle analysis is recycling. The authors note that the characteristics of the batteries is the lack of the same, since there is no financial incentive to send batteries for recycling, as well as the volumes are still small.

Cobalt, nickel and copper are recovered but not the energy required to manufacture electrodes, says Mia Romare and points out that the point of recycling the resource rather than the reduction of carbon emissions.

Peter Kasche the report originator Energy Agency emphasizes the close of the linear relationship between the battery size and emissions is important.

– Somehow you really get to see so as to optimize the batteries. One should not run around with a lot of kilowatt hours unnecessarily. In some cases, a plug-in hybrid to be the optimum, in other cases a clean vehicle battery.

So counted IVL

Mats-Ola Larsson has made a number of assumptions in the calculation of emissions from a battery of the Nissan Leaf size and a battery of Tesla’s size takes 2.7 and 8.2 years to “run together into” a normal petrol or diesel:

The average emissions of new Swedish cars in 2016 were 126 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. The value has been adjusted to 130 because some of the cars that are classified as electric vehicles are plug-in hybrids, which sometimes runs on fossil fuels.

While adoption of petrol and diesel have 18 percent renewable fuels, which affect emissions.

Average Mileage per year is 1224 mil under Traffic Analysis.

Electric Bike News. Tesla Brings New Technology to E-Bike Batteries with the 21700 Cell: Video


e-tracker-2-1440-cropped

Tesla is revolutionizing batteries for electric bicycles and it has to do with the recent changes at the leading battery cell makers BMZ, Panasonic, Sony, Samsung and LG. Together these five make out some 80% of the world production of battery cells.

These five cell makers used to supply huge numbers of cylindrical shaped cells to the IT industry until the industry changed completely from using cylindrical shaped cells to flat shaped batteries which are now used in laptops, tablets and smartphones. Tesla placing huge orders for cylindrical shaped cells pushed battery cell makers to new highs.

Europe’s largest battery maker BMZ boss introduced the 21700 cell that will revolutionize electric bicycles. In particular as the 21700 cell not only offers a much prolonged lifetime but also batteries with a much bigger capacity for more power and pedal-supported mileage.

The extraordinary features that the 21700 battery cell brings to e-bikes will be the new standard in e-bike batteries. And that this new standard will already be available in 2018.

Instead of the current 18650 (18mm diameter and 65mm high) cell size the 21700 cell is 21mm diameter and 70mm high. The bigger size is bringing a bigger output; up to 4.8Ah. With that capacity the battery lifetime is extended from the current some 500 charging cycles up to 1,500 to 2,000 cycles.

BMZ, together with another global battery player, managed to develop batteries that offer a much longer lifespan thanks to the fact that the new batteries create less heat and has up to 60% more capacity.

Rice U: New Lithium metal battery prototype boasts 3X the capacity of current lithium-ions ~ Dendrite Problem Solved?


graphene-nanotube-lithium-battery-4

Could a new material involving a carbon nanotube and graphene hybrid put an end to the dendrite problem in lithium batteries? (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)

The high energy capacity of lithium-ion batteries has led to them powering everything from tiny mobile devices to huge trucks. But current lithium-ion battery technology is nearing its limits and the search is on for a better lithium battery. But one thing stands in the way: dendrites. If a new technology by Rice University scientists lives up to its potential, it could solve this problem and enable lithium-metal batteries that can hold three times the energy of lithium-ion ones.

Dendrites are microscopic lithium fibers that form on the anodes during the charging process, spreading like a rash till they reach the other electrode and causing the battery to short circuit. As companies such as Samsung know only too well, this can cause the battery to catch fire or even explode.

“Lithium-ion batteries have changed the world, no doubt,” says chemist Dr. James Tour, who led the study. “But they’re about as good as they’re going to get. Your cellphone’s battery won’t last any longer until new technology comes along.”

Rice logo_rice3So until scientists can figure out a way to solve the problem of dendrites, we’ll have to put our hopes for a higher capacity, faster-charging battery that can quell range anxiety on hold. This explains why there’s been no shortage of attempts to solve this problem, from using Kevlar to slow down dendrite growth to creating a new electrolyte that could lead to the development of an anode-free cell. So how does this new technology from Rice University compare?

For a start, it’s able to stop dendrite growth in its tracks. Key to it is a unique anode made from a material that was first created at the university five years ago. By using a covalent bond structure, it combines a two-dimensional graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes to form a seamless three-dimensional structure. As Tour explained back when the material was first unveiled:

“By growing graphene on metal (in this case copper) and then growing nanotubes from the graphene, the electrical contact between the nanotubes and the metal electrode is ohmic. That means electrons see no difference, because it’s all one seamless material.”

Close-up of the lithium metal coating the graphene-nanotube anode (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)

 

Envisioned for use in energy storage and electronics applications such as supercapacitors, it wasn’t until 2014, when co-lead author Abdul-Rahman Raji was experimenting with lithium metal and the graphene-nanotube hybrid, that the researchers discovered its potential as a dendrite inhibitor.

“I reasoned that lithium metal must have plated on the electrode while analyzing results of experiments carried out to store lithium ions in the anode material combined with a lithium cobalt oxide cathode in a full cell,” says Raji. “We were excited because the voltage profile of the full cell was very flat. At that moment, we knew we had found something special.”

Closer analysis revealed no dendrites had grown when the lithium metal was deposited into a standalone hybrid anode – but would it work in a proper battery?

To test the anode, the researchers built full battery prototypes with sulfur-based cathodes that retained 80 percent capacity after more than 500 charge-discharge cycles (i.e. the rough equivalent of what a cellphone goes through in a two-year period). No signs of dendrites were observed on the anodes.

How it works

The low density and high surface area of the nanotube forest allow the lithium metal to coat the carbon hybrid material evenly when the battery is charged. And since there is plenty of space for the particles to slip in and out during the charge and discharge cycle, they end up being evenly distributed and this stops the growth of dendrites altogether.

According to the study, the anode material is capable of a lithium storage capacity of 3,351 milliamp hours per gram, which is close to pure lithium’s theoretical maximum of 3,860 milliamp hours per gram, and 10 times that of lithium-ion batteries. And since the nanotube carpet has a low density, this means it’s able to coat all the way down to substrate and maximize use of the available volume.

“Many people doing battery research only make the anode, because to do the whole package is much harder,” says Tour. “We had to develop a commensurate cathode technology based upon sulfur to accommodate these ultrahigh-capacity lithium anodes in first-generation systems. We’re producing these full batteries, cathode plus anode, on a pilot scale, and they’re being tested.”

The study was published in ACS Nano.

Source: Rice University

 

EV Maker Fisker Tweets More Details About the Upcoming EMotion Electric Sedan – Use of Hybrid Graphene Batteries Yet 2 Come ~ A Challenge for Tesla?


 

Fisker-EMotion-TwitterSays graphene batteries won’t go into production yet

Henrik Fisker, initiator of a project to start an electric car company relying on a long-range battery that uses graphene, recently stated that the company’s upcoming electric luxury sedan will use lithium-ion batteries to power the car rather than the graphene battery technology currently under development for future models.

EMotion is slated to officially debut on August 17, 2017 with a tentative release in 2019. Pricing starts at $129,900, placing it in the same range as Tesla Model S. It will be interesting to see at what point, if at all, graphene-based batteries will be used in these cars.

Fisker says the EMotion will still offer 400+ miles of electric range. Quick charging can return 100 miles of range to the battery in nine minutes using what the company calls UltraCharger technology.

“Very proud of what we are creating!” Fisker said via Twitter recently.

His EMotion EV features dramatic suicide-butterfly doors and its sporty wheels are made from aluminum and carbon fiber. Other high-tech features include a lidar sensor recessed in the front bumper to be used for autonomous driving.

Fisker-EV-graphene-battery-img_assist-400x225The EMotion also boasts a Lipik Electrochromic glass roof and rear passenger windows, which can be tinted by the touch of a button.

EMotion is slated to officially debut on August 17, 2017 with a tentative release in 2019. Pricing starts at $129,900, placing it in the same range as Tesla Model S. Pre-orders are open now at www.fiskerinc.com.

Graphene 2017 ImageForArticle_4454(1)See Our Related Article:

The Coming Battery Revolution: Graphene and Batteries 

 

 

The Coming Battery Revolution: Graphene and Batteries 



Graphene 2017 ImageForArticle_4454(1)Graphene and Batteries 

** Re-Posted from earlier article from Graphene Info

Graphene , a sheet of carbon atoms bound together in a honeycomb lattice pattern, is hugely recognized as a “wonder material” due to the myriad of astonishing attributes it holds. It is a potent conductor of electrical and thermal energy, extremely lightweight chemically inert, and flexible with a large surface area. It is also considered eco-friendly and sustainable, with unlimited possibilities for numerous applications.

In the field of batteries, conventional battery electrode materials (and prospective ones) are significantly improved when enhanced with graphene. Graphene can make batteries that are light, durable and suitable for high capacity energy storage, as well as shorten charging times.

It will extend the battery’s life-time, which is negatively linked to the amount of carbon that is coated on the material or added to electrodes to achieve conductivity, and graphene adds conductivity without requiring the amounts of carbon that are used in conventional batteries.

Graphene can improve such battery attributes as energy density and form in various ways. Li-ion batteries can be enhanced by introducing graphene to the battery’s anode and capitalizing on the material’s conductivity and large surface area traits to achieve morphological optimization and performance.

It has also been discovered that creating hybrid materials can also be useful for achieving battery enhancement. A hybrid of Vanadium Oxide (VO2) and graphene, for example, can be used on Li-ion cathodes and grant quick charge and discharge as well as large charge cycle durability.

In this case, VO2 offers high energy capacity but poor electrical conductivity, which can be solved by using graphene as a sort of a structural “backbone” on which to attach VO2 – creating a hybrid material that has both heightened capacity and excellent conductivity.

Another example is LFP ( Lithium Iron Phosphate) batteries, that is a kind of rechargeable Li-ion battery. It has a lower energy density than other Li-ion batteries but a higher power density (an indicator of of the rate at which energy can be supplied by the battery).

Enhancing LFP cathodes with graphene allowed the batteries to be lightweight, charge much faster than Li-ion batteries and have a greater capacity than conventional LFP batteries.

 

In addition to revolutionizing the battery market, combined use of graphene batteries and supercapacitors could yield amazing results, like the noted concept of improving the electric car’s driving range and efficiency.

Battery Basics

Batteries serve as a mobile source of power, allowing electricity-operated devices to work without being directly plugged into an outlet.
While many types of batteries exist, the basic concept by which they function remains similar: one or more electrochemical cells convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery is usually made of a metal or plastic casing, containing a positive terminal (an anode), a negative terminal (a cathode) and electrolytes that allow ions to move between them.

A separator (a permeable polymeric membrane) creates a barrier between the anode and cathode to prevent electrical short circuits while also allowing the transport of ionic charge carriers that are needed to close the circuit during the passage of current.

Finally, a collector is used to conduct the charge outside the battery, through the connected device.



Eneloop battery design

When the circuit between the two terminals is completed, the battery produces electricity through a series of reactions. The anode experiences an oxidation reaction in which two or more ions from the electrolyte combine with the anode to produce a compound, releasing electrons. At the same time, the cathode goes through a reduction reaction in which the cathode substance, ions and free electrons combine into compounds. Simply put, the anode reaction produces electrons while the reaction in the cathode absorbs them and from that process electricity is produced.

The battery will continue to produce electricity until electrodes run out of necessary substance for creation of reactions.

Battery types and characteristics

Batteries are divided into two main types: primary and secondary. Primary batteries (disposable), are used once and rendered useless as the electrode materials in them irreversibly change during charging. Common examples are the zinc-carbon battery as well as the alkaline battery used in toys, flashlights and a multitude of portable devices.

Secondary batteries (rechargeable), can be discharged and recharged multiple times as the original composition of the electrodes is able to regain functionality. Examples include lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics.

Batteries come in various shapes and sizes for countless different purposes. Different kinds of batteries display varied advantages and disadvantages.


Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd)
batteries are relatively low in energy density and are used where long life, high discharge rate and economical price are key. They can be found in video cameras and power tools, among other uses. NiCd batteries contain toxic metals and are environmentally unfriendly.


Nickel-Metal hydride
batteries have a higher energy density than NiCd ones, but also a shorter cycle-life. Applications include mobile phones and laptops.


Lead-Acid
batteries are heavy and play an important role in large power applications, where weight is not of the essence but economic price is. They are prevalent in uses like hospital equipment and emergency lighting.

Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are used where high-energy and minimal weight are important, but the technology is fragile and a protection circuit is required to assure safety. Applications include cell phones and various kinds of computers.


Lithium Ion Polymer (Li-ion polymer)
batteries are mostly found in mobile phones. They are lightweight and enjoy a slimmer form than that of Li-ion batteries.
They are also usually safer and have longer lives. However, they seem to be less prevalent since Li-ion batteries are cheaper to manufacture and have higher energy density.

Batteries and supercapacitors

While there are certain types of batteries that are able to store a large amount of energy, they are very large, heavy and release energy slowly.

Capacitors, on the other hand, are able to charge and discharge quickly but hold much less energy than a battery.

The use of graphene in this area, though, presents exciting new possibilities for energy storage, with high charge and discharge rates and even economical affordability.
Graphene-improved performance thereby blurs the conventional line of distinction between supercapacitors and batteries.

Li-Polymer battery vs Supercapacitor structure


Commercial Graphene-enhanced battery products

Graphene-based batteries have exciting potential and while they are not commercially available yet, R&D is intensive and will hopefully yield results in the future.

In November 2016, Huawei unveiled a new graphene-enhanced Li-Ion battery that can remain functional at higher temperature (60° degrees as opposed to the existing 50° limit) and offers a longer operation time – double than what can be achieved with previous batteries.

To achieve this breakthrough, Huawei incorporated several new technologies – including an anti-decomposition additives in the electrolyte, chemically stabilized single crystal cathodes – and graphene to facilitate heat dissipation. Huawei says that the graphene reduces the battery’s operating temperature by 5 degrees.



In June 2014, US based Vorbeck Materials
announced the Vor-Power strap, a lightweight flexible power source that can be attached to any existing bag strap to enable a mobile charging station (via 2 USB and one micro USB ports). the product weighs 450 grams, provides 7,200 mAh and is probably the world’s first graphene-enhanced battery.

In May 2014, American company Angstron Materials rolled out several new graphene products. The products, said to become available roughly around the end of 2014, include a line of graphene-enhanced anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries. The battery materials were named “NANO GCA” and are supposed to result in a high capacity anode, capable of supporting hundreds of charge/discharge cycles by combining high capacity silicon with mechanically reinforcing and conductive graphene.

Developments are also made in the field of graphene batteries for electric vehicles. Henrik Fisker, who announced its new EV project that will sport a graphene-enhanced battery, unveiled in November 2016 what is hoped to be a competitor to Tesla. Called EMotion, the electric sports car will reportedly achieve a 161 mph (259 kmh) top speed and a 400-mile electric range.

Graphene Nanochem and Sync R&D’s October 2014
plan to co-develop graphene-enhanced Li-ion batteries for electric buses, under the Electric Bus 1 Malaysia program, is another example.

In August 2014, Tesla suggested the development of a “new battery technology” that will almost double the capacity for their Model S electric car. It is unofficial but reasonable to assume graphene involvement in this battery.

UK based Perpetuus Carbon Group and OXIS Energy agreed in June 2014 to co-develop graphene-based electrodes for Lithium-Sulphur batteries, which will offer improved energy density and possibly enable electric cars to drive a much longer distance on a single battery charge.

Another interesting venture, announced in September 2014 by US based Graphene 3D Labs, regards plans to print 3D graphene batteries. These graphene-based batteries can potentially outperform current commercial batteries as well as be tailored to various shapes and sizes.

Other prominent companies which declared intentions to develop and commercialize graphene-enhanced battery products are: Grafoid, SiNode together with AZ Electronic Materials, XG Sciences, Graphene Batteries together with CVD Equipment and CalBattery.

Fisker-EMotion-TwitterRead More: The Fisker EV Sedan “EMotion”

EV Maker Fisker and Tesla Rival Plans to Use Graphene in Batteries to Extend Range – Improve Consumer Experience

MIT: Tesla Not the Only Battery Game in Town ~ Electric Cars Could Be Cheaper Than Internal Combustion by 2030


German chancellor Angela Merkel visits Accumotive’s plant in Kamenz, Germany.

Tesla gets the headlines, but big battery factories are being built all over the world, driving down prices.

Battery production is booming, and Tesla is far from the only game in town.

According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, global battery production is forecast to more than double between now and 2021. The expansion is in turn driving prices down, good news both for the budding electric-car industry and for energy companies looking to build out grid-scale storage to back up renewable forms of energy.


While Tesla gets tons of attention for its “gigafactories”—one in Nevada that will produce batteries, and another in New York that will produce solar panels
—the fact is, the company has a lot of battery-building competition.

Exhibit A is a new battery plant in Kamenz, Germany, run by Accumotive. The half-billion-euro facility broke ground on Monday with a visit from German chancellor Angela Merkel and will supply batteries to its parent company, Daimler, which is betting heavily on the burgeoning electric-vehicle market.

But the lion’s share of growth is expected to be in Asia. BYD, Samsung, LG, and Panasonic (which has partnered with Tesla) are all among the world’s top battery producers, and nine of the world’s largest new battery factories are under construction in China (paywall), according to Benchmark Minerals.

That competition means the steady downward trend in battery prices is going to continue. On a per-kilowatt-hour basis, costs have fallen from $542 in 2012 to around $139 today, according to analysis by Benchmark.

That makes for a huge difference in the cost of an electric car, of which 40 percent is usually down to the battery itself.


Bloomberg’s analysts have already said that the 2020s could be the decade in which electric cars take off—and one even went so far as to say that by 2030, electric cars could be cheaper than those powered by internal combustion.

Those watching the industry might worry that a flood of cheap batteries could end up hurting profitability for producers, as happened in the solar-panel business.

That could happen, but India and China, two huge rising automotive markets, are bullish about using electric cars to help solve problems like traffic congestion and air pollution. So even as supply ramps up, there is likely to be plenty of demand to go around.

MIT Technology Review: M. Reilly Sr. Editor

Are Electric Vehicles Poised for Their ‘Model T’ Moment?



When automobiles first debuted in the United States, they faced a classic “chicken and egg” problem. On one hand, autos were custom-made luxury items, affordable only to a niche market of affluent individuals. 

On the other hand, there was little incentive for most people to buy automobiles in the first place, as the system of roads in America was woefully underdeveloped.

Henry Ford managed to solve the “chicken and egg” problem with the Model T, the first product of its kind to reach the mass market. But today, there’s also another auto industry visionary facing a similar challenge in the 21st century: Elon Musk and his company, Tesla.

SIMILAR TRACKS

Ford’s assembly line and uncomplicated design allowed for cheaper pricing, which helped Ford sales to take off. With many new Model Ts hitting the road, the United States government was able to generate enough revenue from gasoline taxes to enable the sustainable development of roads in the United States.

More roads meant a renewed desire for more Model Ts to populate those roads, and so on. This was the start of a trend that sees 253 million cars on American roads a century later.



COST AND INFRASTRUCTURE: DUELING PRIORITIES

Fast-forward to today, and vehicle buyers have concerns not unlike those of early automobile adopters at the turn of the 20th century. Aside from the price of purchasing a new vehicle, most prospective buyers of electric vehicles cite charging availability and maximum travelling range as their biggest challenges.


Fortunately, EV prices are already falling due to advancements in the production of one of their key components: the lithium-ion battery packs that power them.

At one point, battery packs made up one-third of the costs for a new vehicle, but battery costs have dropped precipitously since 2010. That said, automakers like Tesla will need to continue to make progress here if they hope to match the growth and saturation of their forebears at the turn of the 20th century.

CHARGING AHEAD OF DEMAND
A study by the National Science Foundation’s INSPIRE Project found that the current amount of money disbursed as tax credits to new electric vehicle buyers (currently up to $7,500 per vehicle) would have been sufficient to build 60,000 new charging points nationwide.

The growth of charging station infrastructure is already astonishing. New public outlets have been added at a 65.3% CAGR between 2011 and 2016, and further growth will open even more roads to long-distance EV travel and network effects.

According to the math of the study, new charge stations would have a bigger effect on the EV market than the tax credits, and could have increased EV sales by five times the amount.

In short, charging stations will be to Tesla what roads were to Ford: the means by which they can reach lofty new heights of market dominance. Infrastructure development may be the “push” that electric vehicles need to get them over the early adoption barrier and into the mainstream. Combined with falling costs and improved efficiency, electric vehicles could create a Ford-like transformation within the automotive industry in a very short time.

** Article by C. Matel of the Visual Capitalist 

%d bloggers like this: