UC Riverside: Lithium-ion batteries made from recycled glass bottles – Video



Lithium-ion batteries made from recycled glass bottles – UC Riverside 

Researchers  at the University of California, Riverside’s Bourns College of Engineering are using waste glass bottles and a low-cost chemical process to create nanosilicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries that will extend the battery life of electric vehicles and personal electronics.

UC Riverside Research Teams have developed a low-cost way of turning discarded glass bottles into lithium-ion batteries that can store almost 4 times more energy and last much longer than conventional batteries.

The three-step process of producing the anodes starts by crushing and grounding glass bottles into fine white powder, silicon dioxide is then converted into nanostructured silicon, followed by coating the silicon nanoparticles with carbon.

This could mean significantly fewer charges for laptops, cell phones and electric cars, while reducing waste.

Watch The Video:

 

Using Nano-Structured conductive Polymer Gels to Improve Lithium-Io Battery’s Performance


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The electrode in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an integrated system in which both active materials and binder systems play critical roles in determining its final properties. In order to improve battery performance, a lot of research is focusing on the development of high-capacity active materials. However, without an efficient binder system, these novel materials can’t fulfill their potentials.

 

A group of researchers now has contributed to this field from a slight different aspect, developing a high-performance and general binder system for batteries. This entirely new binder system with a nano-architecture promotes both electron and ion transport, which enhances the energy per unit mass and volume of the electrode.This work by Guihua Yu group at University of Texas at Austin and Esther Takeuchi group at Stony Brook University, demonstrates a new generation of nanostructured conductive polymer gel based novel binder materials for fabrication of high-energy lithium-ion battery electrodes.

 

This gel framework could become a next-generation binder system for commercial Li-ion batteries.”Compared to conventional binder system which typically consists of conductive additive and polymer binder, our novel binder plays dual functionalities simultaneously combining conductive and adhesive features, thus greatly improving the better utility of active electrode materials,”Professor Yu tells Nanowerk.

“More importantly, owing to its unique 3D network structure, this gel binder promotes both electron and ion transport in electrode and improves the distribution of active particles, thus enhancing the rate performance and cycle life of battery electrodes.”He points out that this invention is important because it presents a new generation of powerful yet scalable binder materials for lithium ion batteries that show great potential in industrial manufacturing.This novel gel binder can overcome the drawbacks of conventional binder systems, leading to next-generation lithium ion battery with high performance.

The researchers have reported their findings in two papers in Nano Letters (“Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels as a General Framework Material To Improve Electrochemical Performance of Cathode Materials in Li-Ion Batteries”) and Advanced Materials (“A Tunable 3D Nanostructured Conductive Gel Framework Electrode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries”).

 

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Schematic of synthetic and structural features of commercial lithium iron phosphate (C-LFP)/cross-linked polypyrrole (C-PPy) hybrid gel framework. The conductive polymer chains can be polymerized in situ with electrode materials and cross-linked by molecules with multiple functional groups, resulting in a polymeric network connecting all active particles. (Reprinted with permission by American Chemical Society) (click on image to enlarge)

“A traditional binder system in Li-ion battery electrodes is a binary hybrid with components acting separate functionalities,” explains Yu. “In such system, polymer binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) adhere the active materials and other additives together to hold the mechanical integrity while a conductive additive (usually carbon particles) ensures the conductivity of the entire electrode.”In these electrodes, electrons transport through chains of particles while ions move through the liquid or solid electrolyte that fills the pores of the electrode.

energy_storage_2013 042216 _11-13-1However, the conductive phases are randomly distributed, which may lead to bottlenecks and poor contacts that impede effective access to parts of the battery.And both organic and inorganic components tend to aggregate, which also negatively impact electron and ion transport.The team’s novel conductive gel binder can overcome these drawbacks and thus improve the rate and cyclic performance of Li-ion batteries.

The conductive polymer gels potentially could also be used for responsive/smart electronics such as biosensors, artificial skins and soft robotics.The scientific core of this work is that three-dimensional nanostructured conductive polymer gels can be built up by tunable molecule crosslinking and this unique conductive framework material can promote the electron/ion transport within battery electrodes.

“Firstly, our work provides a new method for synthesis of conductive polymer gel,” elaborates Yu. “Traditionally, conductive polymer gels are synthesized by template-based method, which usually results in low conductivity and poor mechanical properties. The method we developed is to crosslink conductive polymer chains with functional molecules with multiple functional groups, enabling a network, interconnected structure promoting high electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity.”

“Secondly, we demonstrated that this newly developed conductive polymer gel can be used as binder system and significantly improve conventional lithium-ion battery performance owing to their advantageous structural features,” he continues. “The ease of processability and excellent chemical and physical properties of these nanostructured conductive gels enable a new class of binder materials for fabricating next-generation high-energy lithium-ion batteries.”Although the researchers’ binder gel is mechanically strong, it lacks flexibility and stretchability.

The plan is to further modify the mechanical properties by tailoring the molecular backbones of conductive polymers through the addition of side chains or other building block polymers.The scientists further intend to demonstrate the versatility of their gel binders for other important electrode materials, such as some commercial electrode materials, as well as some next-generation ultrahigh-capacity materials, such as silicon, and sulfur.

by Michael Berger @ Nanowerk

‘Smart clothing’ could someday power cell phones with the sun’s rays


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Credit: American Chemical Society

Batteries in smart phones and other portable electronics often die at inopportune times. Carrying a spare battery is one solution. As an alternative, researchers have tried to create fibers to incorporate in clothing that would power these devices. However, many of these fibers can’t withstand clothing manufacturing, especially weaving and cutting.

Now, in the journal ACS Nano, scientists report the first fibers suitable for weaving into tailorable textiles that can capture and release solar energy.

To collect solar power, Wenjie Mai, Xing Fan and colleagues created two different types of fibers. One contained titanium or a manganese-coated polymer along with zinc oxide, a dye and an electrolyte. These fibers were then interlaced with copper-coated polymer wires to create the solar cell section of the textile. To store power, the researchers developed a second type of fiber. This one was made of titanium, , a thin carbon shell to prevent oxidation and an electrolyte. These were woven with cotton yarn.wearable-textiles-100616-0414_powdes_ti_f1

When combined, the new materials formed a flexible textile that the team could cut and tailor into a “smart garment” that was fully charged by sunlight. The researchers say the clothing could potentially power small electronics including tablets and phones.(Article Continues Below – After Tenka Energy Story)

 

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Read About (Watch the YouTube Video) 

              The Tenka Energy Story

Tenka Energy, LLC  is developing and commercializing the Next Generation of Super-Capacitors and Batteries, providing the High-Energy-Density, in Flexible-Thin-Form with Rapid Charge/ Recharge Cycles with  Extended Life that is required and in high demand from a“power starved world”. The opportunity is based on a Nanoporous-Nickel Flexible Thin-form technology that is  easily scaled, from Rice University. Applications: Powered Smart Cards, Wearable Electronics, Drone Batteries, Medical Devices, Motorcycle and EV Batteries – just to name a few!

 

(Article Continued) Explore further: New fabric uses sun and wind to power devices

More information: Zhisheng Chai et al. Tailorable and Wearable Textile Devices for Solar Energy Harvesting and Simultaneous Storage, ACS Nano (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b05293

Abstract
The pursuit of harmonic combination of technology and fashion intrinsically points to the development of smart garments. Herein, we present an all-solid tailorable energy textile possessing integrated function of simultaneous solar energy harvesting and storage, and we call it tailorable textile device. Our technique makes it possible to tailor the multifunctional textile into any designed shape without impairing its performance and produce stylish smart energy garments for wearable self-powering system with enhanced user experience and more room for fashion design.

The “threads” (fiber electrodes) featuring tailorability and knittability can be large-scale fabricated and then woven into energy textiles. The fiber supercapacitor with merits of tailorability, ultrafast charging capability, and ultrahigh bending-resistance is used as the energy storage module, while an all-solid dye-sensitized solar cell textile is used as the solar energy harvesting module. Our textile sample can be fully charged to 1.2 V in 17 s by self-harvesting solar energy and fully discharged in 78 s at a discharge current density of 0.1 mA.

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Genesis Nanotechnology, Inc. ~ “Great Things from Small Things”

Creating the Future of Batteries


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We need better ways to store and use energy, that’s no secret. Cell phones need charging every day, electric cars only have a range of about a hundred miles and our ability to use solar and wind energy to feed the power grid is still very limited. These are things we’ve taken for granted, but if you look, historically, at the rate in which our technology improves — just think about cell phones and computers in the last 20 years — it’s easy to see that this area of technological development has severely lagged.

energy storage device.jpgWhile there are a number of political, philosophical and theoretical explanations for why energy storage development has fallen behind, experts agree that if the problem is going to be fixed in our lifetime, it needs to start now.

Energy storage is a limiting factor that researchers have been aware of for quite a while, but their work to improve our storage devices has taken many, disparate directions. In a recent edition of Nature Communications, Drexel materials science and engineering researchers Yury Gogotsi, PhD, and Maria Lukatskaya, PhD, who have been surveying the landscape of energy storage research for years, offer a unified route for bringing our energy storage and distribution capabilities level with our energy production and consumption.

rice-nanoporus-battery-102315-untitled-1You May Also Want To Read: Nanoporous Material Combines the Best of Batteries and Supercapacitors for ESS (Energy Storage Systems)

 

Read about the work of Dr. Jim Tour at Rice University – “Changing the Equation” for how we think about Batteries, Super Capacitors and Energy Storage.        Rice logo_rice3

 

 

Lukatskaya and Gogotsi unpacked the problem for the News Blog and offered up three ways in which energy storage research and development need to change right now to get things moving in the right direction:

 So, the directions where we want our energy storage devices — such as batteries — to go are pretty intuitive: we want them to store more energy per unit of volume (or mass) so that it would provide longer autonomy times for portable electronics without making them bulkier. We also want to enable fast charging of the devices, so that five minutes of charging would provide full-day power for device operation. And last, but not least, we want to increase the lifespan of batteries — meaning the number of charge/discharge cycles they can undergo without performance degradation.  

To achieve that, we need to rethink conventional electrode architectures and materials that are currently used in energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors.

  1. Clean up all the wasted space

For example, in state of the art batteries, too much volume is occupied by the cell components that do not store charge. It is estimated that in smaller devices more than 80 percent of the volume is occupied by the inert cell components: current collectors, separators and casings. So new design concepts that minimize use of current collectors would lead to substantial improvement in energy that can be stored per unit of mass or volume of the device.

  1. Come up with a better recipe

Secondly, new electrolyte and electrode chemistries should be explored. Currently, oxide materials dominate the “insides” of batteries. Oxides have many advantages, being among the most studied material, and they provided a reliable energy storage solution for quite a while, but in order to address growing needs for high-energy batteries, other electrode materials should be explored that have high electrical conductivity and can enable multielectron redox reactions (storing more charges per atom than lithium).

  1. Get electrons and ions on the expressway

In order to make energy storage devices fast, it is again necessary to reconsider electrode architectures to ensure rapid accessibility of ions and electrons toward active sites. Basically, we need to create such architectures where, instead of a “maze,” ions can move on “highways” providing fast charging.

 

Gogotsi is Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in the College of Engineering and director of the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute. Lukatskaya, was a doctoral candidate in the Department of Materials Science and Engineeringwhen she worked with Gogotsi on this research. She is now a post-doctoral research fellow at Stanford University.

You can read their Nature Communications paper “Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage” here:http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12647