MIT: Researchers clarify mystery about proposed battery material – More “Energy Per Pound”- EV’s and Lithium-Air Batteries


MIT-Lithium-i-1_0Study explains conflicting results from other experiments, may lead to batteries with more energy per pound.

Battery researchers agree that one of the most promising possibilities for future battery technology is the lithium-air (or lithium-oxygen) battery, which could provide three times as much power for a given weight as today’s leading technology, lithium-ion batteries. But tests of various approaches to creating such batteries have produced conflicting and confusing results, as well as controversies over how to explain them.

Now, a team at MIT has carried out detailed tests that seem to resolve the questions surrounding one promising material for such batteries: a compound called lithium iodide (LiI). The compound was seen as a possible solution to some of the lithium-air battery’s problems, including an inability to sustain many charging-discharging cycles, but conflicting findings had raised questions about the material’s usefulness for this task. The new study explains these discrepancies, and although it suggests that the material might not be suitable after all, the work provides guidance for efforts to overcome LiI’s drawbacks or find alternative materials.battery-5001

The new results appear in the journal Energy and Environmental Science, in a paper by Yang Shao-Horn, MIT’s W.M. Keck Professor of Energy; Paula Hammond, the David H. Koch Professor in Engineering and head of the Department of Chemical Engineering; Michal Tulodziecki, a recent MIT postdoc at the Research Laboratory of Electronics; Graham Leverick, an MIT graduate student; Yu Katayama, a visiting student; and three others.

The promise of the lithium-air battery comes from the fact one of the two electrodes, which are usually made of metal or metal oxides, is replaced with air that flows in and out of the battery; a weightless substance is thus substituted for one of the heavy components. The other electrode in such batteries would be pure metallic lithium, a lightweight element.

But that theoretical promise has been limited in practice because of three issues: the need for high voltages for charging, a low efficiency with regard to getting back the amount of energy put in, and low cycle lifetimes, which result from instability in the battery’s oxygen electrode. Researchers have proposed adding lithium iodide in the electrolyte as a way of addressing these problems. But published results have been contradictory, with some studies finding the LiI does improve the cycling life, “while others show that the presence of LiI leads to irreversible reactions and poor battery cycling,” Shao-Horn says.

Previously, “most of the research was focused on organics” to make lithium-air batteries feasible, says Michal Tulodziecki, the paper’s lead author. But most of these organic compounds are not stable, he says, “and that’s why there’s been a great focus on lithium iodide [an inorganic material], which some papers said helps the batteries achieve thousands of cycles. But others say no, it will damage the battery.” In this new study, he says, “we explored in detail how lithium iodide affects the process, with and without water,” a comparison which turned out to be significant.

lithium-air-battery (1)

The team looked at the role of LiI on lithium-air battery discharge, using a different approach from most other studies. One set of studies was conducted with the components outside of the battery, which allowed the researchers to zero in on one part of the reaction, while the other study was done in the battery, to help explain the overall process.

They then used ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy and other techniques to study the reactions that took place. Both of these processes foster the production of different lithium compound such as LiOH (lithium hydroxide) in the presence of both LiI and water, instead of Li2O(lithium peroxide).  LiI can enhance water’s reactivity and make it lose protons more easily, which promotes the formation of LiOH in these batteries and interferes with the charging process. These observations show that finding ways to suppress these reactions could make compounds such as LiI work better.

This study could point the way toward selecting a different compound instead of LiI to perform its intended function of suppressing unwanted chemical reactions at the electrode surface, Leverick says, adding that this work demonstrates the importance of “looking at the detailed mechanism carefully.”

Shao-Horn says that the new findings “help get to the bottom of this existing controversy on the role of LiI on discharge. We believe this clarifies and brings together all these different points of view.”

But this work is just one step in a long process of trying to make lithium-air technology practical, the researchers say. “There’s so much to understand,” says Leverick, “so there’s not one paper that’s going to solve it. But we will make consistent progress.”

“Lithium-oxygen batteries that run on oxygen and lithium ions are of great interest because they could enable electric vehicles of much greater range. However, one of the problems is that they are not very efficient yet,” says Larry Curtiss, a distinguished fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, who was not involved in this work. In this study, he says, “it is shown how adding a simple salt, lithium iodide, can potentially be used to make these batteries run much more efficiently. They have provided new insight into how the lithium iodide acts to help break up the solid discharge product, which will help to enable the development of these advanced battery systems.”Nissan-Leaf

Curtiss adds that “there are still significant barriers remaining to be overcome before these batteries become a reality, such as getting long enough cycle life, but this is an important contribution to the field.”

The team also included recent MIT graduates Chibueze Amanchukwu PhD ’17 and David Kwabi PhD ’16, and Fanny Bardé of Toyota Motor Europe. The work was supported by Toyota Motor Europe and the Skoltech Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage, and used facilities supported by the National Science Foundation.

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Volvo goes ALL EV/ Hybrid by 2019 ~ Is it a BIG Deal? + Video NextGen ‘Battery Pack’ that could propel Tesla ‘S’ 2X farther at 1/2 the Cost


Still from animation - Mild hybrid, 48 volts

Original Report from IDTechEX

Volvo Cars has been in the news recently in relation to their announcement this Wednesday on their decision to leave the internal combustion engine only based automotive industry.   The Chinese-European company announced that from 2019 all their vehicles will be either pure electric or hybrid electric. In this way it has been argued the company is making a bold move towards electrification of vehicles. Volvo to capture potential market in China The company will launch a pure electric car in 2019 and that is a great move indeed, considering that the company has been owned by Chinese vehicle manufacturer Geely since 2010.

The Chinese electric vehicle market has been booming in the last years reaching a sales level of 350,000 plug-in EVs (pure electric and plug-in hybrid electric cars) in 2016. The Chinese plug-in EV market grew 300% from 2014 to 2015 but cooled down to 69% growth in 2016 vs 2015, still pushing a triple digit growth in pure electric cars. The Chinese government has announced that in 2017 sales will reach 800,000 NEV  (new energy vehicles including passenger and bus, both pure electric and hybrid electric).   IDTechEx believes that China will not make it to that level, but will definitely push the figures close to that mark.

We think that the global plug-in electric vehicle market will surpass 1 million sales per year for the first time at the end of 2017.   Until recently this market has been mostly dominated by Chinese manufacturers, being BYD the best seller of electric cars in the country with 100,000 plug-in EVs sold in 2016. Tesla polemically could not penetrate the market but in 2016 sold around 11,000 units.  

Whilst the owner of Volvo Cars, Geely, is active in China selling around 17,000 pure electric cars per year, it might be that Volvo has now realized that they can leverage on their brand in the Chinese premium market to catch the huge growth opportunity in China and need to participate as soon as possible.   More information on market forecasts can be found in IDTechEx Research’s report Electric Vehicles 2017-2037: Forecasts, Analysis and Opportunities.

Volvo 4 Sedan volvo-40-series-concepts-16-1080x720

Is Volvo Cars’ move a revolutionary one? Not really, as technically speaking the company is not entirely making a bold movement to only 100% “strong” hybrid electric and pure electric vehicles.   This is because the company will launch in 2019 a “mild” hybrid electric vehicles, this is also known in the industry as 48V hybrid electric platform. This is a stepping stone between traditional internal combustion engine companies and “strong” hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius.

The 48V platform is being adopted by many automotive manufacturers, not only Volvo. OEMs like Continental developed this platform to provide a “bridge technology”  towards full EVs for automotive manufacturers, providing 6 to 20 kW electric assistance. By comparison, a full hybrid system typically offers 20-40-kW and a plug-in hybrid, 50-90 kW.   Volvo had already launched the first diesel plug-in hybrid in 2012 and the company will launch a new plug-in hybrid platform in 2018 in addition to the launch of the 2019 pure electric vehicle platform.   Going only pure electric and plug-in hybrid electric would be really revolutionary.   See IDTechEx Research’s report Mild Hybrid 48V Vehicles 2017-2027 for more information on 48V platforms.

Tesla Model 3hqdefaultAdditional Information: The Tesla Model ‘S’

The Tesla Model S is a full-sized all-electric five-door, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on 22 June 2012.[14] It scored a perfect 5.0 NHTSA automobile safety rating.[15] The EPA official rangefor the 2017 Model S 100D,[16] which is equipped with a 100 kWh(360 MJbattery pack, is 335 miles (539 km), higher than any other electric car.[17] The EPA rated the 2017 90D Model S’s energy consumption at 200.9 watt-hours per kilometer (32.33 kWh/100 mi or 20.09 kWh/100 km) for a combined fuel economy of 104 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.26 L/100 km or 125 mpg‑imp).[18] In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S to closely match that of the Model X. As of July 2017, the following versions are available: 75, 75D, 90D, 100D and P100D.[19]

 

Tesla Battery Pack 2014-08-19-19.10.42-1280

 

For more specific details on the updated Tesla Battery Pack go here:

Teardown of new 100 kWh Tesla battery pack reveals new cooling system and 102 kWh capacity

 

 

 

Volvo 3 Truck imagesA radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors.   Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature  by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits.   These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths globally in 2015.

The authors conclude that more stringent standards are required in order to avoid 174,000 premature deaths globally in 2040.   Diesel cars account for over 50 percent of all new registrations in Europe, making the region by far the world’s biggest diesel market. Volvo Cars, sells 90 percent of its XC 90 off roaders in Europe with diesel engines.   “From today’s perspective, we will not develop any more new generation diesel engines,” said Volvo’s CEO Hakan Samuelsson told German’s Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in an interview .   Samuelsson declared  that Volvo Cars aims to sell 1 million “electrified” cars by 2025, nevertheless he refused to be drawn on when Volvo Cars will sell its last diesel powered vehicle.

Goldman Sachs believes  a regulatory crackdown could add 300 euros ($325) per engine to diesel costs that are already some 1,300 euros above their petrol-powered equivalents, as carmakers race to bring real NOx emissions closer to their much lower test-bench scores. Scandinavia’s vision of a CO2-free economy Volvo’s decision should also be placed in a wider context regarding the transition to an environmentally sustainable economy.

Scandinavia’s paper industry has made great strides towards marketing itself as green and eco-aware in the last decades, so much so that countries like Norway have tripled the amount of standing wood in forests compared to 100 years ago. Energy supply is also an overarching theme, with each one of the four Scandinavian countries producing more than 39% of their electricity with renewables (Finland 39%, Sweden and Denmark 56%, Norway 98%). Finally, strong public incentives have made it possible for electric vehicles to become a mainstream market in Norway, where in 2016, one in four cars sold was a plug-in electric, either pure or hybrid.   It is then of no surprise that the first battery Gigafactory announcement in Europe came from a Swedish company called Northvolt (previously SGF Energy).

The Li-ion factory will open in 4 steps, with each one adding 8 GWh of production capacity. This gives a projected final output of 32 GWh, but if higher energy cathodes are developed, 40-50 GWh capacity can be envisioned. A site has not yet been identified, but the choice has been narrowed down to 6-7 locations, all of them in the Scandinavian region. The main reasons to establish a Gigafactory there boil down to the low electricity prices (hydroelectric energy), presence of relevant mining sites, and the presence of local know-how from the pulp & paper industry.   After a long search for a European champion in the EV market, it finally seems that Sweden has accepted to take the lead, and compete with giants like BYD and rising stars like Tesla. This could be the wake-up call for many other European car makers, which have been rather bearish towards EV acceptance despite many bold announcements.   To learn more about IDTechEx’s view on electric vehicles, and our projections up to 2037, please check our master report on the subject http://www.IDTechEx.com/ev .

Top image source: Volvo Cars Learn more at the next leading event on the topic: Business and Technology Insight Forum. Korea 2017 on 19 – 21 Sep 2017 in Seoul, Korea hosted by IDTechEx.

More Information on ‘NextGen Magnum SuperCap-Battery Pack’ that could propel a Tesla Model ‘S’ 90% farther (almost double) and cost 1/2 (one-half) as much: Video

 

World’s Largest Lithium-Ion Battery System to be Built in Australia by Tesla + Video


AS TESLA MODEL 3 PRODUCTION BEGINS, ELON MUSK ANNOUNCES BIGGEST BATTERY ON OTHER SIDE OF THE WORLD 

You’d think the biggest Tesla news today would be surrounding landmark production of Tesla Model 3 SN1 — aka serial number 1. 



However, news emerged that Elon Musk was on the other side of the world. Wall Street Journal* reports, “Tesla Inc.’s Elon Musk has agreed to build the world’s largest lithium-ion battery system in Australia, an ambitious project that he hopes will show how the technology can help solve energy problems.”


Above: Tesla is planning the world’s biggest battery installation in South Australia (Image: Tesla)




It’s reported that, “The plan is to build a 100-megawatt storage system in the state of South Australia—which has been hit by a string of blackouts over the past year—that will collect power generated by a wind farm built by French energy company Neoen.” Musk emphasized the magnitude of the project, explaining: ““This is not a minor foray into the frontier, this is like going three times further than anyone has gone before.”

Above: More on Tesla’s project in South Australia (Youtube: Jay Weatherill)
It turns out that “Tesla was selected from more than 90 bids to build a storage system for the state, said South Australia Premier Jay Weatherill. The value of the project wasn’t disclosed. The origins of the deal trace back to a Twitter exchange in March between Mr. Musk and local entrepreneur Mike Cannon-Brookes, which led to conversations between Mr. Musk and Mr. Weatherill and Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.”

Above: Tesla CEO Elon Musk and South Australia Premier Jay Weatherill (Twitter: Jay Weatherill)

True to his word, “Mr. Musk pledged to complete the project—which he said will be three times more powerful than any other battery system in the world—within 100 days of signing an agreement or it would be free.” In addition, “Once the project is completed, which Tesla expects will happen by the start of the Australian summer in December, it will be larger than a storage facility in the Southern California desert also built on Tesla batteries.”


Above: Tesla Powerpack installation (Image: Tesla)
According to Tesla, “The project will provide enough power for more than 30,000 homes, about equal to the number of homes that lost power during the blackouts.” Back in Fremont, the Tesla factory will get started on the first-ever production Model 3. Coming off historic rocket launches at SpaceX, chalk up another landmark milestone (or two) for Tesla today — just another week of work for the Iron Man, Elon Musk.

*Source: Wall Street Journal

Nanostructured Electrodes from a Molybdenum Disulfide-Carbon Composite may provide Practical Fast-Charging Batteries


Fast Charge batteries vid47065

Electrodes are critical parts of every battery architecture — charge too fast, and you can decrease the charge-discharge cycle life or damage the battery so it won’t charge anymore. Scientists have built a new design and chemistry for electrodes. Their design involves advanced, nanostructured electrodes containing molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanofibers (Advanced Energy Materials, “Pseudocapacitive charge storage in thick composite MoS2 nanocrystal-based electrodes”). These composite materials have internal atomic-scale pathways. These paths are for both fast ion and electron transport, allowing for fast charging.

Fast Charge batteries vid47065

Battery electrodes made of a molybdenum disulfide nanocrystal composite have internal pathways to allow lithium ions to move quickly through the electrode, speeding up the rate that the battery can charge. The key features in the structure that enable the flow of the lithium ions are the small, 20-40 nanometer, diameter of the nanocrystals (in contrast, human hairs are about 100,000 nanometers in diameter) coupled with the porosity and planar lamellar pathways shown in the electron micrograph. (Image: Sarah Tolbert, University of California, Los Angeles)

 

The new battery electrodes provide several benefits. The electrodes allow fast charging. They also have stable charge/discharge behavior, so the batteries last longer. These electrodes show promise for practical electrical energy storage systems.
New battery electrodes based on nanostructured molybdenum disulfide combine the ability to charge in seconds with high capacity and long cycle life. Typical lithium-ion batteries charge slowly due to slow diffusion of lithium ions within the solid electrode.
Another type of energy storage device (a.k.a., pseudocapacitors), which has similarities to the capacitors found in common electrical circuits, speeds up the charging process by using reactions at or near the electrode surface, thus avoiding slow solid-state diffusion pathways.
Nanostructured electrodes allow the creation of large surface areas so that the battery can work more like a pseudocapacitor. In this work at the University of California, Los Angeles, scientists made nanostructured electrodes from a molybdenum disulfide-carbon composite.
Many electrodes are based on metal oxides, but because sulfur more weakly interacts with lithium than oxygen, lithium atoms can move more freely in the metal sulfide than the metal oxide. The result is a battery electrode that shows high capacity and very fast charging times.
The novel electrodes deliver specific capacities of 90 mAh/g (about half that of a typical lithium-ion battery cathode) charging in less than 20 seconds, and retain over 80 percent of their original capacity after 3,000 charge/discharge cycles. Capacities of greater than 180 mAh/g (similar to cathodes in conventional lithium-ion cells) are achieved at slower charging rates.
The results have exciting implications for the development of fast-charging energy storage systems that could replace traditional lithium-ion batteries.
Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science

 

Finding Ways to Cure the Energy Dense but Short-Lived Lithium-Sulfur Battery – A ‘First-Time Look’


Lithium Sulfur I chemistsseek

Everyone’s heard the phrase about seeing both the details and the big picture, and that struggle comes into sharp relief for those studying how to create batteries that hold more energy and cost less. It’s difficult to see the details of atomic and topographical changes as a battery operates.

For DOE’s Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Vijay Murugesan and his colleagues at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Texas A&M University found a way. The result? They saw the products of the parasitic electrolyte decomposition reactions. The reactions led to a layer that smothers the electrode in energy-dense-but short-lived-lithium-sulfur batteries (Chemistry of Materials, “In-Situ Chemical Imaging of Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer Evolution in Li-S Batteries”).
This research is thanks, in part, to a new device that let the team track the progression of sulfur in a vacuum inside a powerful scientific instrument. “We can now realistically probe the reactions happening and view how the products actually spread,” said Murugesan, PNNL researcher.
The Forest, the Trees and Parasitic Reactions in Batteries
The Forest, the Trees and Parasitic Reactions in Batteries. Researchers built a new stage and created a designer electrolyte to obtain both detailed and broad overviews of a troubling layer that causes promising lithium-sulfur batteries to fail. (Image: Nathan Johnson, PNNL)
 

Better batteries affect everything from how you get to work to how long you can work on your laptop computer before finding an outlet. The results from this fundamental study benefit energy storage in two ways. First, to do the work, the team created a new “stage.” This device let scientists determine the atomic composition and electronic and chemical state of the atoms on the electrode while the battery was running. Scientists can use this device to obtain a detailed view of other batteries.

“Doing this measurement is challenging,” said Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, a PNNL scientist who worked on the research. “This is the first time we could access this level of quantity and quality data while batteries were charging and discharging.”
The second benefit of this study is the potential to solve the fading issue in lithium-sulfur batteries. “Sulfur is significantly cheaper than current cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries,” said Murugesan. “So the total cost of a lithium-sulfur battery will be low. Simultaneously, the energy density will be a huge advantage-approximately five times more than lithium-ion batteries.”
The team achieved the results thanks to a combination of scientific innovation and serendipity. The innovation came in building the unique stage for the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument. The researchers needed to track the sulfur in the battery, but sulfur volatilizes in a vacuum. All samples in an XPS are studied under vacuum. Combining the newly designed stage and ionic liquids as electrolyte media let the team operate the battery inside the XPS and monitor the growth of sulfur-based compounds to see the parasitic reactions.
“We designed a completely new capability for the XPS system,” said Ashleigh Schwarz, who performed many of the XPS scans on the battery and helped determine the electrolyte to use on the stage.
The electrolyte’s composition is crucial, as it must survive the vacuum used by XPS. Schwarz and her colleagues tested different compositions to see how well the electrolyte performed in the XPS. The team’s choice contained 20 percent of the traditional solvent (DOL/DME) combined with an ionic solvent.
Using the XPS in analysis or spectroscopy mode, the team obtained the atomic information, including the atoms present and the chemical bonds between them. Switching over to an imaging or microscopic mode, the researchers acquired topological views of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer forming. This view let them see where the elements were on the surface and more. The combination of views let them obtain critical information over a wide range of spatial resolutions, spanning from angstroms to micrometers as the battery drained and charged.
The XPS resides in EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE Office of Science user facility at PNNL.
Lithium Sulfur II bg-applications-1In addition, the team benefited from a serendipitous meeting at a national scientific conference. Murugesan was talking with Perla Balbuena, Texas A&M University, about her research into lithium-sulfur batteries. The pair quickly realized that her work on ab initio molecular dynamics modeling would benefit the experiments. Balbuena and her colleague Luis Camacho-Forero worked with the experimentalists to interpret the results and test new ideas about how the SEI layer forms. Knowing how the layer forms could lead to options that stop its formation altogether and greatly extend the battery life cycle.
As part of JCESR, the team is continuing to answer tough questions necessary to create the next generation of energy storage technologies.
Source: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

 

NextGen Vanadium Batteries: Berkeley & Texas A&M Scientists may have solved ‘electron bottleneck’


vanadium small batt night-battery-theme-minimalismAs the appetite grows for more efficient vehicles and mobile devices based on cleaner, renewable energy sources, so does the demand for batteries that pack more punch, last longer, and charge or discharge more quickly. The compound vanadium pentoxide has grabbed the spotlight as a way to improve lithium-ion batteries. However, it’s less-than-stellar behavior has been problematic.

 

An international team working at the Molecular Foundry (Berkeley) revealed why the material may not perform as expected. The team discovered how interactions between electrons and ions slow the performance of electrodes made with vanadium pentoxide (Nature Communications, “Mapping polaronic states and lithiation gradients in individual V2O5 nanowires”).

 

This work answers, in part, why the material gets bogged down. Vanadium pentoxide’s layered atomic structure results in a vast surface area, but a bottleneck occurs. If scientists can address the bottleneck, this material may lead to the next generation of batteries, which pack more punch, last longer, and charge or discharge more quickly.
A scanning electron microscopy image of vanadium pentoxide nanowires
A scanning electron microscopy image of vanadium pentoxide nanowires. The inset shows a ball-and-stick model of vanadium pentoxide’s atomic structure before and after inserting lithium ions (green). (Image: Texas A&M University)
An international team of scientists working at the Molecular Foundry has revealed how interactions between electrons and ions can slow down the performance of vanadium pentoxide, a material considered key to the next generation of batteries.
The compound vanadium pentoxide has grabbed the spotlight as a potential nanostructured material for state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries because it can provide a greater surface area for the arrival and insertion of lithium ions. That quality makes vanadium pentoxide a good candidate as a cathode, the part of a battery where electrons and lithium ions enter.
The speed with which electrons can enter and exit the cathode determines how much power the battery can provide. The entry and exit speed also determine how quickly a battery recharges.
Power density and charging are both critical factors in the world of mobile electronics or electrification of our automotive fleet. But despite vanadium pentoxide’s potential, it has yet to be widely adopted commercially because of its less-than-stellar performance when put to the test in the real world.
The new findings shed light on the slowdown. The results show that the flow of electrons in vanadium pentoxide nanowires gets bogged down as it interacts with lithium ions in a phenomenon known as small polaron formation.
The research group, which involved scientists at Texas A&M University, made 2D maps of the electronic properties of synthesized vanadium pentoxide nanowires serving as a model lithium-ion cathode using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy at the Canadian Light Source. They came to the Molecular Foundry to interpret their findings.
Source: Molecular Foundry, Berkeley Lab

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

vanadium batt medium windcarrier_cellcube-281x300Lithium batteries may reign supreme when it comes to cellphones, laptops and electric vehicles. But for larger-scale energy storage, some are looking at alternative metals and technologies.

Enter Vanadium redox batteries. First successfully created by Dr. Maria Skyllas-Kazacos of the University of New South Wales in the 1980’s, Vanadium redox flow batteries use sulfuric solutions to power themselves. A vanadium electrolyte passing through a proton exchange membrane allows the battery to work, with a solution filling two tanks on either side.

Click Here to Read More: What are Vanadium Redox Batteries?

Vanadium Batt large FlowBattery-640x355

Batteries that Really Keep Going and Going and Going …


U of Waterloo: Forget the graphite-based lithium batteries currently powering your devices. Next-generation batteries could last for decades. Really.

With a potential lifespan of 10 to 20 years, Professor Zhongwei Chen’s next-generation rechargeable batteries are set to put the Energizer Bunny to shame.

This battery could last 10 years, or even more than 20 years.Energizer_Bunny

Dr. Chen and his team are developing next-generation batteries and fuel cells. They are working on two types of batteries that are destined to be longer lasting and more efficient. One of these batteries is a rechargeable zinc battery that uses renewable energy, such as solar and wind. It could also be cost effective, which means that everyone could use it in the future.

Dr. Chen and his team are using novel materials to upgrade the traditional battery. He says that the key is to use silicon-based materials instead of graphite materials, which are currently being used in the commercial battery. Why? Silicon’s energy density is 10 times higher.

The result is a potential 150% energy density increase compared to its graphite-based lithium battery counterpart, which is currently being used to power electric cars and our cell phones. With the popularity of electric cars on the rise, companies such as Tesla and Panasonic are already looking to move beyond the limitations of the lithium battery.

Dr. Chen explains how he plans to solve the problems associated with the traditional battery as we move forward to meet the increased energy demands of the future.

MORE: Watch Our Current Battery Technology Project Video

A new company has been formed to exploit and commercialize the Next Generation Super-Capacitors and Batteries. The opportunity is based on Technology & Exclusive IP Licensing Rights from Rice University, discovered/ curated by Dr. James M. Tour, named “One of the Fifty (50) most influential scientists in the World today”

The Silicon Nanowires & Lithium Cobalt Oxide technology has been further advanced to provide a New Generation Battery that is:

 Energy Dense
 High Specific Power
 Affordable Cost
 Low Manufacturing Cost
 Rapid Charge/ Re-Charge
 Flexible Form Factor
 Long Warranty Life
 Non-Toxic
 Highly Scalable

Key Markets & Commercial Applications

 Motor Cycle/ EV Batteries
 Marine Batteries
 Drone Batteries and
 Power Banks
 Estimated $112B Market for Rechargeable Batteries by 2025

Re-Writing The Rules Of Lithium Ion Batteries


Lithium-ion-battery-33keuak4zrobupedaw2ups

Ultrafast spectroscopy has revealed that components of the electrolyte play a much more important role in battery performance than previously thought.

Using ultrafast spectroscopic methods, researchers from the Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics at the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have challenged the existing theory on ion diffusion in the widely used lithium rechargeable batteries. Published in Nature Communications, this study reveals the interactions between lithium ions and electrolytes, organic molecules that surround the lithium ions and conduct electricity.

CNT Battery MjU2NDIyMQAlthough most of our electronic devices like mobile phones, laptops and electric vehicles use lithium rechargeable batteries, what is going on inside them is not actually fully understood. In a typical commercial lithium rechargeable battery, lithium ions dissolved in electrolytes move from the positive to the negative pole of the battery when the battery is charging, migrating in the opposite direction when the battery is in use. The lithium ion mobility determines the performance of the lithium rechargeable battery, and determines how rapidly they can charge and discharge. Lithium ions, however, do not migrate alone: they are surrounded by electrolytes that facilitate the journey from one pole to the other.

Currently, the electrolytes in our lithium rechargeable batteries are typically composed of a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) in equal concentration. It is believed that lithium ions associate mainly with EC, forming the so-called ‘solvation shell’ or ‘solvation sheath,’ while DMC and DEC just enhancing the movement of these shells between the batteries’ poles, like lubricants. However, while most of the previous studies focused on the static properties of the bond between electrolytes and lithium ions, this study clarifies the dynamics of the bonding. Like in a motion picture, where a series of still images displayed rapidly one after the other create the effect of movements, IBS scientists took successive shots to analyze the formation and breaking of these bonds.

However, while movies are typically filmed and displayed at 24 still images per seconds, these measurement ‘shots’ were taken at time intervals of just femtoseconds or 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second. Thanks to a tool called two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, the team measured how lithium ions bind to the oxygen atoms of DEC and found that these bonds break and form in a matter of 2-17 picoseconds.

The timescale is similar for DMC. This means that DMC and DEC are more than just lubricants, they are also part of the solvation shell together with EC and may play an active role in transporting lithium ions to the battery’s pole. “It was believed that EC makes a rigid shell around lithium ions during the migration between electrodes.

However, this study shows that the solvent shell is not that rigid, it is constantly restructured during the ion transport,” explained Professor Cho Minhaeng. “For this reason, revising the existing lithium ion diffusion theory is inevitable.” The research team is working on a follow-up study to establish a new theory of the lithium ion diffusion process and it is building a new ultra-high-speed laser spectroscopy instrument that can observe the chemical reaction as well as film it on top of the rechargeable batteries’ electrodes.

The article can be found at: Lee et al. (2017) Ultrafast Fluxional Exchange Dynamics in Electrolyte Solvation Sheath of Lithium Ion Battery. Read more from Asian Scientist Magazine at: https://www.asianscientist.com/2017/04/tech/lithium-battery-electrolyte-solvation-shell/

Lithium-ion battery inventor introduces new technology for fast-charging, noncombustible batteries – Is it “Goodenough?”


goodenough-1-lithiumionbaJohn Goodenough, professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin and co-inventor of the lithium-ion battery, in the battery materials lab he oversees. Credit: Cockrell School of Engineering

A team of engineers led by 94-year-old John Goodenough, professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin and co-inventor of the lithium-ion battery, has developed the first all-solid-state battery cells that could lead to safer, faster-charging, longer-lasting rechargeable batteries for handheld mobile devices, electric cars and stationary energy storage.

Goodenough’s latest breakthrough, completed with Cockrell School senior research fellow Maria Helena Braga, is a low-cost all-solid-state that is noncombustible and has a long cycle life (battery life) with a high volumetric and fast rates of charge and discharge. The engineers describe their new technology in a recent paper published in the journal Energy & Environmental Science.

“Cost, safety, energy density, rates of charge and discharge and cycle life are critical for battery-driven cars to be more widely adopted. We believe our discovery solves many of the problems that are inherent in today’s batteries,” Goodenough said.

li_battery_principleThe Basics of the Lithium Ion Battery Principle

Today’s lithium-ion batteries use liquid electrolytes to transport the lithium ions between the anode (the negative side of the battery) and the cathode (the positive side of the battery). If a battery cell is charged too quickly, it can cause dendrites or “metal whiskers” to form and cross through the liquid electrolytes, causing a short circuit that can lead to explosions and fires. Instead of liquid electrolytes, the researchers rely on glass electrolytes that enable the use of an alkali-metal anode without the formation of dendrites.

The researchers demonstrated that their new have at least three times as much energy density as today’s lithium-ion batteries. A battery cell’s energy density gives an electric vehicle its driving range, so a higher energy density means that a car can drive more miles between charges. The UT Austin battery formulation also allows for a greater number of charging and discharging cycles, which equates to longer-lasting batteries, as well as a faster rate of recharge (minutes rather than hours).

The use of an alkali-metal anode (lithium, sodium or potassium)—which isn’t possible with conventional batteries—increases the energy density of a cathode and delivers a long cycle life. In experiments, the researchers’ cells have demonstrated more than 1,200 cycles with low cell resistance.

Additionally, because the solid-glass electrolytes can operate, or have high conductivity, at -20 degrees Celsius, this type of battery in a car could perform well in subzero degree weather. This is the first all-solid-state battery cell that can operate under 60 degree Celsius.

Braga began developing solid-glass electrolytes with colleagues while she was at the University of Porto in Portugal. About two years ago, she began collaborating with Goodenough and researcher Andrew J. Murchison at UT Austin. Braga said that Goodenough brought an understanding of the composition and properties of the solid-glass electrolytes that resulted in a new version of the electrolytes that is now patented through the UT Austin Office of Technology Commercialization.

The engineers’ glass electrolytes allow them to plate and strip alkali metals on both the cathode and the anode side without dendrites, which simplifies battery cell fabrication.

Another advantage is that the battery cells can be made from earth-friendly materials.

“The glass allow for the substitution of low-cost sodium for lithium. Sodium is extracted from seawater that is widely available,” Braga said.

Goodenough and Braga are continuing to advance their battery-related research and are working on several patents. In the short term, they hope to work with battery makers to develop and test their new materials in electric vehicles and energy storage devices.

 

Explore further: Cathode material with high energy density for all-solid lithium-ion batteries

Provided by University of Texas at Austin

Columbia U: New Method increases energy density in lithium batteries – as much as 10 to 30 %


new-lith-energy-dense-columbia-newmethodinc
Graphite/PMMA/Li trilayer electrode before (left) and after (right) being soaked in battery electrolyte for 24 hours. Before soaking in electrolyte, the trilayer electrode is stable in air. After soaking, lithium reacts with graphite and …more

Yuan Yang, assistant professor of materials science and engineering at Columbia Engineering, has developed a new method to increase the energy density of lithium (Li-ion) batteries. He has built a trilayer structure that is stable even in ambient air, which makes the battery both longer lasting and cheaper to manufacture. The work, which may improve the energy density of lithium batteries by 10-30%, is published online today in Nano Letters.

“When are charged the first time, they lose anywhere from 5-20% energy in that first cycle,” says Yang. “Through our design, we’ve been able to gain back this loss, and we think our method has great potential to increase the operation time of batteries for portable electronics and electrical vehicles.”

During the first charge of a lithium after its production, a portion of liquid electrolyte is reduced to a solid phase and coated onto the negative electrode of the battery. This process, usually done before batteries are shipped from a factory, is irreversible and lowers the energy stored in the battery. The loss is approximately 10% for state-of-the-art negative electrodes, but can reach as high as 20-30% for next-generation negative electrodes with high capacity, such as silicon, because these materials have large volume expansion and high surface area. The large initial loss reduces achievable capacity in a full cell and thus compromises the gain in and cycling life of these nanostructured electrodes.

The traditional approach to compensating for this loss has been to put certain lithium-rich materials in the electrode. However, most of these materials are not stable in ambient air. Manufacturing batteries in dry air, which has no moisture at all, is a much more expensive process than manufacturing in ambient air. Yang has developed a new trilayer electrode structure to fabricate lithiated battery anodes in ambient air. In these electrodes, he protected the lithium with a layer of the polymer PMMA to prevent lithium from reacting with air and moisture, and then coated the PMMA with such active materials as artificial graphite or silicon nanoparticles. The PMMA layer was then dissolved in the battery electrolyte, thus exposing the lithium to the electrode materials. “This way we were able to avoid any contact with air between unstable lithium and a lithiated electrode,” Yang explains, “so the trilayer-structured electrode can be operated in . This could be an attractive advance towards mass production of lithiated battery electrodes.”

New method increases energy density in lithium batteries
Illustration showing the procedure to fabricate the trilayer electrode. PMMA is used to protect lithium and make the trilayer electrode stable in ambient air. PMMA is dissolved in battery electrolyte and graphite contacts with lithium to …more

Yang’s method lowered the loss capacity in state-of-the-art graphite electrodes from 8% to 0.3%, and in silicon electrodes, from 13% to -15%. The -15% figure indicates that there was more lithium than needed, and the “extra” lithium can be used to further enhance cycling life of batteries, as the excess can compensate for capacity loss in subsequent cycles. Because the energy density, or capacity, of lithium-ion batteries has been increasing 5-7% annually over the past 25 years, Yang’s results point to a possible solution to enhance the capacity of Li-ion batteries. His group is now trying to reduce the thickness of the polymer coating so that it will occupy a smaller volume in the lithium battery, and to scale up his technique.

“This three-layer electrode structure is indeed a smart design that enables processing of lithium-metal-containing electrodes under ambient conditions,” notes Hailiang Wang, assistant professor of chemistry at Yale University, who was not involved with the study. “The initial Coulombic efficiency of electrodes is a big concern for the Li-ion battery industry, and this effective and easy-to-use technique of compensating irreversible Li ion loss will attract interest.”

Explore further: Lithium-ion batteries: Capacity might be increased by six times

More information: Zeyuan Cao et al, An Ambient-air Stable Lithiated Anode for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries with High Energy Density, Nano Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03655