Turbocharge for lithium batteries: A NEW Nanocomposite material that can Increase Storage Capacity, Lifetime and Charging Speed for Li-Io Batteries: 3X More Energy in ONE Hour


renaissanceoA team of material researchers has succeeded in producing a composite material that is particularly suited for electrodes in lithium batteries. The nanocomposite material might help to significantly increase the storage capacity and lifetime of batteries as well as their charging speed. 

Lithium-ion batteries are the ultimate benchmark when it comes to mobile phones, tablet devices, and electric cars. Their storage capacity and power density are far superior to other rechargeable battery systems. Despite all the progress that has been made, however, smartphone batteries only last a day and electric cars need hours to be recharged. Scientists are therefore working on ways to improve the power densities and charging rates of all-round batteries. “An important factor is the anode material,” explains Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing from the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1).

“In principle, anodes based on tin dioxide can achieve much higher specific capacities, and therefore store more energy, than the carbon anodes currently being used. They have the ability to absorb more lithium ions,” says Fattakhova-Rohlfing. “Pure tin oxide, however, exhibits very weak cycle stability — the storage capability of the batteries steadily decreases and they can only be recharged a few times. The volume of the anode changes with each charging and discharging cycle, which leads to it crumbling.”

One way of addressing this problem is hybrid materials or nanocomposites — composite materials that contain nanoparticles. The scientists developed a material comprising tin oxide nanoparticles enriched with antimony, on a base layer of graphene. The graphene basis aids the structural stability and conductivity of the material. The tin oxide particles are less than three nanometres in size — in other words less than three millionths of a millimetre — and are directly “grown” on the graphene. The small size of the particle and its good contact with the graphene layer also improves its tolerance to volume changes — the lithium cell becomes more stable and lasts longer. turbocharge batt 1

Three times more energy in one hour

“Enriching the nanoparticles with antimony ensures the material is extremely conductive,” explains Fattakhova-Rohlfing. “This makes the anode much quicker, meaning that it can store one-and-a-half times more energy in just one minute than would be possible with conventional graphite anodes. It can even store three times more energy for the usual charging time of one hour.”

“Such high energy densities were only previously achieved with low charging rates,” says Fattakhova-Rohlfing. “Faster charging cycles always led to a quick reduction in capacity.” The antimony-doped anodes developed by the scientists, however, retain 77 % of their original capacity even after 1,000 cycles.

“The nanocomposite anodes can be produced in an easy and cost-effective way. And the applied concepts can also be used for the design of other anode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” explains Fattakhova-Rohlfing. “We hope that our development will pave the way for lithium-ion batteries with a significantly increased energy density and very short charging time.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by Forschungszentrum JuelichNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Florian Zoller, Kristina Peters, Peter M. Zehetmaier, Patrick Zeller, Markus Döblinger, Thomas Bein, Zdeneˇk Sofer, Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing. Making Ultrafast High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries via Antimony Doping of Nanosized Tin Oxide/Graphene CompositesAdvanced Functional Materials, 2018; 28 (23): 1706529 DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201706529
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How Lockheed Martin’s and Elcora Advanced Materials (Graphene) Partnership may Revolutionize Military “driverless vehicles” and Lithium-Ion Batteries


Elcora 2 BG-3-elcora

Maintaining a global supply chain is one of the most secretive and understated keys to the success of a military campaign. As described by the U.S. Army, the quick and efficient transport of goods like water, food, fuel, and ammunition has been essential in winning wars for thousands of years. Supply chain and logistics management has evolved to include, “storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption”. In essence, that means the movement of vehicles bringing precious cargo from the home base to the soldiers fighting on the front lines.

Security and strategic operations are critical elements in the fulfillment of this potentially hazardous supply chain. Enemy forces hiding in the bushes can open fire to try to slow down the troops’ movement. With mines littered all over the war zone, all it would take is one wrong step, and the truck and the people in them, would be blown to smithereens.

One ingenious solution is the deployment of an automated military convoy run by a military commander, which can reduce risks and their accompanying vulnerabilities. In line with this, advanced defense contractor Lockheed Martin Canada (NYSE:LMT) has successfully tested “driverless trucks” on two active U.S. military bases.

Call it the soldier’s equivalent of a smart fleet of cars that would take the currently popular concept of self-driving vehicles to a whole new, safer level. Human operators would still be needed to guide the vehicles towards their destinations. However, because this could be accomplished remotely, very little time would be lost to the exchange of hostilities, as these smart military vehicles would be impervious to the enemy’s usual attempts at distraction. And in case firepower does break out, the loss of life, as well as injury to the troops, would be minimal.

The memorandum of agreement signed between Elcora and Lockheed Martin, is not the usual corporate alliance but bears important long-term repercussions for sectors such as transport, security, and the military-industrial complex. Lockheed Martin is a leviathan in the aerospace, defense, weaponry, and other technologies that have been instrumental in keeping many of the nations of the world safe. elcora-advanced-materials 3

The Lithium-ion (or Li-ion) batteries that it uses to store energy in many of its technologies and processes are critical to upholding the operations being conducted in many of its devices, plants, and facilities. The more energy that these batteries can store, the longer the systems and machines can function, without interruption, and in compliance with the highest standards of safety.

This is where Elcora comes in. The future of military supply chain and logistics management is accelerating thanks to Lockheed’s recently signed partnership with end-to-end graphene producer Elcora Advanced Materials (TXSV:ERAOTC:ECORF).

Elcora graphene-uses 1One element that can ensure the consistent and reliable powering up for the Li-ion batteries is graphene, an element derived from graphite minerals. Elcora is one of the few companies that produce and distribute graphene in one dynamic end-to-end operation, from the time that the first rocks are mined in Sri Lanka, to the time that they are refined, developed, and purified in the company’s facilities in Canada. The quality of the graphene that comes out of Elcora’s pipeline is higher than those usually found in the market. This pristine quality can help the Li-ion batteries increase their storage of power without adding further cost.

Li-ion batteries are already being sought after for prolonging the lifespan of power charged in a wide range of devices, from the ubiquitous smartphones, to the electric cars that innovators like Elon Musk are pushing to become more mainstream in our roads and highways. Lockheed Martin will also be using them in the military vehicles that will be guided by their Autonomous Mobility Applique Systems (AMAS), or the ‘driverless military convoy’, as described above. The tests have shown that these near-smart vehicles have already clocked in 55,000 miles. Lockheed is looking forward to completing the tests and fast-forwarding to deploying them for actual use in military campaigns.

Rice Chart for LiIo Batts 2-riceuscienti

The importance of long-lasting Li-ion batteries in the kind of combat arena that Lockheed Martin is expert in cannot be overestimated. With electric storage given a lengthier lifespan by the graphene anode in the batteries, the military commanders guiding the smart convoys do not have to fear any anticipated technical breakdown. They can also count on the batteries to sustain the vehicles’ power and carry them through to the completion of their mission if something unexpected happens. The juice in those Li-ion batteries will last longer, which is critical in crises such as the sudden appearance of combatants.

Sometimes, the winner in war turns out to be the force that is the more resilient and sustaining power. As the ancient Chinese master of war Sun Tzu had warned eons ago, sometimes “the line between order and disorder”—or victory or defeat—“lies in logistics.” Through its graphene-constituted Li-ion batteries, The Lockheed Martin-Elcora alliance can certainly enhance any military force’s capacity in that area.

* Article from Technology.org

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GNT US Tenka EnergySuper Capacitor Assisted Silicon Nanowire and Graphene Batteries for EV and Small Form Factor Markets. A New Class of Battery /Energy Storage Materials is being developed to support the Energy Dense – High Capacity – High Performance High Cycle Battery and Super Capacitor Markets.

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Sandia National Laboratories: Making ‘solid ground’ toward better lithium-ion battery interfaces


5-1-researchersmSchematic of full battery cell architecture and cross-sectional microscopic image of the actual battery. Credit: Sandia National Laboratories

Research at Sandia National Laboratories has identified a major obstacle to advancing solid-state lithium-ion battery performance in small electronics: the flow of lithium ions across battery interfaces.

Sandia’s three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project investigated the nanoscale chemistry of , focusing on the region where electrodes and electrolytes make contact. Most commercial  contain a liquid electrolyte and two solid electrodes, but solid-state batteries instead have a solid electrolyte layer, allowing them to last longer and operate more safely.

“The underlying goal of the work is to make solid-state batteries more efficient and to improve the interfaces between different materials,” Sandia physicist Farid El Gabaly said. “In this project, all of the materials are solid; we don’t have a liquid-solid  like in traditional lithium-ion batteries.”

The research was published in a Nano Letters paper titled, “Non-Faradaic Li+ Migration and Chemical Coordination across Solid-State Battery Interfaces.” Authors include Sandia postdoctoral scientist Forrest Gittleson and El Gabaly. The work was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, with supplemental funding by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

El Gabaly explained that in any lithium , the lithium must travel back and forth from one electrode to the other when it is charged and discharged. However, the mobility of lithium ions is not the same in all materials and interfaces between materials are a major obstacle.

Speeding up the intersection

El Gabaly compares the work to figuring out how to make traffic move quickly through a busy intersection.

“For us, we are trying to reduce the traffic jam at the junction between two materials,” he said.

El Gabaly likened the electrode-electrolyte interface to a tollbooth or merge on a freeway.

“We are essentially taking away the cash tolls and saying everybody needs to go through the fast track, so you’re smoothing out or eliminating the slowdowns,” he said. “When you improve the process at the interface you have the right infrastructure for vehicles to pass easily. You still have to pay, but it is faster and more controlled than people searching for coins in the glove box.”

There are two important interfaces in solid state batteries, he explained, at the cathode-electrolyte junction and electrolyte-anode junction. Either could be dictating the performance limits of a full battery.

Gittleson adds, “When we identify one of these bottlenecks, we ask, ‘Can we modify it?’ And then we try to change the interface and make the chemical processes more stable over time.”

Researchers make solid ground toward better lithium-ion battery interfaces
Sandia National Laboratories researchers Forrest Gittleson, left, and Farid El Gabaly investigate the nanoscale chemistry of solid-state batteries, focusing on the region where electrodes and electrolytes make contact. Credit: Dino Vournas

Sandia’s interest in solid-state batteries

El Gabaly said Sandia is interested in the research mainly because solid-state batteries are low maintenance, reliable and safe. Liquid electrolytes are typically reactive, volatile and highly flammable and are a leading cause of commercial battery failure. Eliminating the liquid component can make these devices perform better.

“Our focus wasn’t on large batteries, like in electric vehicles,” El Gabaly said. “It was more for small or integrated electronics.”

Since Sandia’s California laboratory did not conduct solid-state battery research, the project first built the foundation to prototype batteries and examine interfaces.

“This sort of characterization is not trivial because the interfaces that we are interested in are only a few atomic layers thick,” Gittleson said. “We use X-rays to probe the chemistry of those buried interfaces, seeing through only a few nanometers of material. Though challenging to design experiments, we have been successful in probing those regions and relating the chemistry to full battery performance.”

Processing the research

The research was conducted using materials that have been used in previous proof-of-concept solid-state batteries.

“Since these materials are not produced on a massive commercial scale, we needed to be able to fabricate full devices on-site,” El Gabaly said. “We sought methods to improve the batteries by either inserting or changing the interfaces in various ways or exchanging materials.”

The work used pulsed laser deposition and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with electrochemical techniques. This allowed very small-scale deposition since the batteries are thin and integrated on a silicon wafer.

“Using this method, we can engineer the interface down to the nanometer or even subnanometer level,” Gittleson said, adding that hundreds of samples were created.

Building batteries in this way allowed the researchers to get a precise view of what that interface looks like because the  can be assembled so controllably.

The next phase of the research is to improve the performance of the batteries and to assemble them alongside other Sandia technologies.

“We can now start combining our batteries with LEDs, sensors, small antennas or any number of integrated devices,” El Gabaly said. “Even though we are happy with our , we can always try to improve it more.”

 Explore further: Toward safer, longer-lasting batteries for electronics and vehicles

More information: Forrest S. Gittleson et al. Non-Faradaic Li+ Migration and Chemical Coordination across Solid-State Battery Interfaces, Nano Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03498

 

‘Smart’ Orthodontic Technology from KAUST – Flexible microbattery enables smart dental braces


Nano Dental Bracesid48660

Flexible, non-cytotoxic battery concept. Optical images of an intra-oral implantable device that relies on millimeter-sized flexible, biocompatible lithium-ion battery as a rapid powering solution. (© Nature Publishing Group)

Researchers have demonstrated a novel approach toward smart orthodontics based on near-infrared red light from a mechanically flexible LED powered by flexible bio-safe batteries all integrated in a single 3D-printed dental brace.

As the team from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) demonstrates in their paper in NPJ Flexible Electronics (“Flexible and biocompatible high-performance solid-state micro-battery for implantable orthodontic system”), integration of red light therapy enhances bone regeneration, reducing overall time to wear the dental brace and unburdening users from expense. Furthermore, 3D printing allows personalized (instead of one size fits all) transparent dental brace.
“Integration of electronic devices in 3D printed dental aligners, as we have demonstrated here, is a pragmatic approach towards implementing a flexible electronic technology in personalized advanced healthcare, particularly in orthodontics,” Muhammad Mustafa Hussain, an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at KAUST, tells Nanowerk. ” The next stage of our work will be to demonstrate diagnostics in the smart dental brace in which sensors are able to detect the pressure exerted by aligners on teeth. This might help orthodontists estimate the force required by aligners; thus providing both diagnostic and treatment capabilities in dental braces. “
Flexible, non-cytotoxic battery concept
The scientific core of the team’s findings is to approach flexible energy storage solutions in a way that is pragmatic, fast and well integrated with other components. A major challenge to integrate any traditional lithium-based energy storage is their toxicity. The scientists circumvented this issue by introducing non-toxic micro-scale flexible batteries to be used as on-demand power supply.
Furthermore, they integrated near-infrared (NIR) capability as well as an optoelectronic system of light emitting diodes (LED) arrays in a personalized, 3D-printed semi-transparent dental brace. Of course, such a device would not have been possible without an appropriate energy storage solution.
Key to this smart brace is the use of a high-performance flexible solid-state microbattery. A standalone all thin-film lithium-ion battery already can be readily thinned down to about 30 microns thickness to achieve flexibility. The team’s flexing process for thin-film-based micro-batteries achieves two major objectives: 1) utilization of mature and reliable CMOS process with 90% yield and repeated electrochemical measurements on multiple devices, and 2) the ability to withstand high annealing temperatures of cathode material or soldering that are unachievable using direct film deposition on plastic substrates.
“Our flexile biocompatible lithium-ion battery can be transferred on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and interconnected via aluminum engraved interconnections to create a battery module,” explains Hussain. “During testing we found that the battery module exhibits minimal strain while most of the stress is experienced by the PET film.”
Continuous intra-oral NIR light therapy for patients is becoming a growing necessity for accelerating the rate of the bone remodeling process. Near-infrared light can be absorbed by bone cells to stimulate the bone regeneration for faster orthodontic treatment.
That’s why the team integrated near-infrared LEDs with the flexible batteries and interconnected them on a soft PET substrate. The whole device is embedded in semi-transparent 3D-printed brace.
To summarize, this smart dental brace relies on two main functionalities: Firstly, a customizable, personalized, and semitransparent brace, which provides required external loading to stimulate healthy rebuilding of bone structures. Secondly, a miniaturized, soft, biocompatible optoelectronic system for an intraoral (conformable on the mouth) near-infrared light therapy, which allows rapid, temporally specific control of osteogenic cell activity via targeted exposure and light sensitive proteins present in bone cells.
“The combination of both strategies in one single platform provides affordable, multifunctionality dental braces,” concludes Hussain. “Such capability enhances the bone regeneration significantly and reduces the overall cost and discomfort. Our future work will include integration of compliant soft-substrate-based LEDs and miniaturized ICs with enhanced wireless capability for smart gadget-based remote control for cleaning and therapy.”

 

@ Michael Berger © Nanowerk

‘Magnesium Mystery’ for (Lithium-Based) Rechargeable Batteries Solved: DOE


Molecular models shows the initial state of battery chemistry that leads to instability in a test cell featuring a magnesium anode

Rechargeable batteries based on magnesium, rather than lithium, have the potential to extend electric vehicle range by packing more energy into smaller batteries. But unforeseen chemical roadblocks have slowed scientific progress.
And the places where solid meets liquid – where the oppositely charged battery electrodes interact with the surrounding chemical mixture known as the electrolyte – are the known problem spots.

Now, a research team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, led by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), has discovered a surprising set of chemical reactions involving magnesium that degrade battery performance even before the battery can be charged up.

The findings could be relevant to other battery materials, and could steer the design of next-generation batteries toward workarounds that avoid these newly identified pitfalls.

The team used X-ray experiments, theoretical modeling, and supercomputer simulations to develop a full understanding of the chemical breakdown of a liquid electrolyte occurring within tens of nanometers of an electrode surface that degrades battery performance. Their findings are published online in the journal Chemistry of Materials (“Instability at the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface Induced by Hard Cation Chelation and Nucleophilic Attack”).

The battery they were testing featured magnesium metal as its negative electrode (the anode) in contact with an electrolyte composed of a liquid (a type of solvent known as diglyme) and a dissolved salt, Mg(TFSI)2.

While the combination of materials they used were believed to be compatible and nonreactive in the battery’s resting state, experiments at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS), an X-ray source called a synchrotron, uncovered that this is not the case and led the study in new directions.

These molecular models show the initial state of battery chemistry that leads to instability in a test cell featuring a magnesium (Mg) anode. (Credit: Berkeley Lab)

“People had thought the problems with these materials occurred during the battery’s charging, but instead the experiments indicated that there was already some activity,” said David Prendergast, who directs the Theory of Nanostructured Materials Facility at the Molecular Foundry and served as one of the study’s leaders.

“At that point it got very interesting,” he said. “What could possibly cause these reactions between substances that are supposed to be stable under these conditions?”

Molecular Foundry researchers developed detailed simulations of the point where the electrode and electrolyte meet, known as the interface, indicating that no spontaneous chemical reactions should occur under ideal conditions, either. The simulations, though, did not account for all of the chemical details.

“Prior to our investigations,” said Ethan Crumlin, an ALS scientist who coordinated the X-ray experiments and co-led the study with Prendergast, “there were suspicions about the behavior of these materials and possible connections to poor battery performance, but they hadn’t been confirmed in a working battery.”

Commercially popular lithium-ion batteries, which power many portable electronic devices (such as mobile phones, laptops, and power tools) and a growing fleet of electric vehicles, shuttle lithium ions – lithium atoms that become charged by shedding an electron – back and forth between the two battery electrodes. These electrode materials are porous at the atomic scale and are alternatively loaded up or emptied of lithium ions as the battery is charged or discharged.

In this type of battery, the negative electrode is typically composed of carbon, which has a more limited capacity for storing these lithium ions than other materials would.

So increasing the density of stored lithium by using another material would make for lighter, smaller, more powerful batteries. Using lithium metal in the electrode, for example, can pack in more lithium ions in the same space, though it is a highly reactive substance that burns when exposed to air, and requires further research on how to best package and protect it for long-term stability.

Magnesium metal has a higher energy density than lithium metal, meaning you can potentially store more energy in a battery of the same size if you use magnesium rather than lithium.

Magnesium is also more stable than lithium. Its surface forms a self-protecting “oxidized” layer as it reacts with moisture and oxygen in the air. But within a battery, this oxidized layer is believed to reduce efficiency and shorten battery life, so researchers are looking for ways to avoid its formation.

To explore the formation of this layer in more detail, the team employed a unique X-ray technique developed recently at the ALS, called APXPS (ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). This new technique is sensitive to the chemistry occurring at the interface of a solid and liquid, which makes it an ideal tool to explore battery chemistry at the surface of the electrode, where it meets the liquid electrolyte.

Magnesium Batt id48371_2

Simulations show the weakening of a bond in a liquid solvent due to the presence of free-floating hydroxide ions, which contain a single oxygen atom bound to a hydrogen atom. In this illustration, atoms are color-coded: hydrogen (white), oxygen (red), carbon (light blue), magnesium (green), nitrogen (dark blue), sulfur (yellow), fluorine (brown). This process degrades battery performance. (Credit: Berkeley Lab)

Even before a current was fed into the test battery, the X-ray results showed signs of chemical decomposition of the electrolyte, specifically at the interface of the magnesium electrode. The findings forced researchers to rethink their molecular-scale picture of these materials and how they interact.

What they determined is that the self-stabilizing, thin oxide surface layer that forms on the magnesium has defects and impurities that drive unwanted reactions.

“It’s not the metal itself, or its oxides, that are a problem,” Prendergast said. “It’s the fact you can have imperfections in the oxidized surface. These little disparities become sites for reactions. It feeds itself in this way.”

A further round of simulations, which proposed possible defects in the oxidized magnesium surface, showed that defects in the oxidized surface layer of the anode can expose magnesium ions that then act as traps for the electrolyte’s molecules.

If free-floating hydroxide ions – molecules containing a single oxygen atom bound to a hydrogen atom that can be formed as trace amounts of water react with the magnesium metal – meet these surface-bound molecules, they will react.

This wastes electrolyte, drying out the battery over time. And the products of these reactions foul the anode’s surface, impairing the battery’s function.

It took several iterations back and forth, between the experimental and theoretical members of the team, to develop a model consistent with the X-ray measurements. The efforts were supported by millions of hours’ worth of computing power at the Lab’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.

Researchers noted the importance of having access to X-ray techniques, nanoscale expertise, and computing resources at the same Lab.

The results could be relevant to other types of battery materials, too, including prototypes based on lithium or aluminum metal. Prendergast said, “This could be a more general phenomenon defining electrolyte stability.”

Crumlin added, “We’ve already started running new simulations that could show us how to modify the electrolyte to reduce the instability of these reactions.” Likewise, he said, it may be possible to tailor the surface of the magnesium to reduce or eliminate some of the unwanted chemical reactivity.

“Rather than allowing it to create its own interface, you could construct it yourself to control and stabilize the interface chemistry,” he added. “Right now it leads to uncontrollable events.”

Source: By Glenn Roberts Jr., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

 

 

Supercharging Silicon Batteries – Powering Up LI Batteries


super silicon LI batt anode 170906103638_1_540x360
The porosity of the nano-structured Tantalum (in black) enables the formation of silicon channels (in blue) allowing lithium ions to travel faster within the battery. The rigidity of the tantalum scaffold also limits the expansion of the silicon and preserve structural integrity. Credit: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University Nanoparticles by Design Unit

Scientists have designed a novel silicon-based anode to provide lithium batteries with increased power and better stability.

 

As the world shifts towards renewable energy, moving on from fossil fuels, but at the same time relying on ever more energy-gobbling devices, there is a fast-growing need for larger high-performance batteries. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) power most of our portable electronics, but they are flammable and can even explode, as it happened to a recent model of smartphone. To prevent such accidents, the current solution is to encapsulate the anode — which is the negative (-) electrode of the battery, opposite to the cathode (+) — into a graphite frame, thus insulating the lithium ions. However, such casing is limited to a small scale to avoid physical collapse, therefore restraining the capacity — the amount of energy you can store — of the battery.

Looking for better materials, silicon offers great advantages over carbon graphite for lithium batteries in terms of capacity. Six atoms of carbon are required to bind a single atom of lithium, but an atom of silicon can bind four atoms of lithium at the same time, multiplying the battery capacity by more than 10-fold. However, being able to capture that many lithium ions means that the volume of the anode swells by 300% to 400%, leading to fracturing and loss of structural integrity. To overcome this issue, OIST researchers have now reported in Advanced Science the design of an anode built on nanostructured layers of silicon — not unlike a multi-layered cake — to preserve the advantages of silicon while preventing physical collapse.

This new battery is also aiming to improve power, which is the ability to charge and deliver energy over time.

“The goal in battery technology right now is to increase charging speed and power output,” explained Dr. Marta Haro Remon, first author of the study. “While it is fine to charge your phone or your laptop over a long period of time, you would not wait by your electric car for three hours at the charging station.”

And when it comes to providing energy, you would want your car to start off quickly at a traffic light or a stop sign, requiring a high spike in power, rather than slowly creeping forward. A well-thought design of a silicone-based anode might be a solution and answer these expectations.img_0132-3

The idea behind the new anode in the Nanoparticles by Design Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University is the ability to precisely control the synthesis and the corresponding physical structure of the nanoparticles. Layers of unstructured silicon films are deposited alternatively with tantalum metal nanoparticle scaffolds, resulting in the silicon being sandwiched in a tantalum frame.

“We used a technique called Cluster Beam Deposition,” continued Dr. Haro. “The required materials are directly deposited on the surface with great control. This is a purely physical method, there are no need for chemicals, catalysts or other binders.”

“We used a technique called Cluster Beam Deposition,” continued Dr. Haro. “The required materials are directly deposited on the surface with great control. This is a purely physical method, there are no need for chemicals, catalysts or other binders.”

The outcome of this research, led by Prof. Sowwan at OIST, is an anode with higher power but restrained swelling, and excellent cyclability — the amount of cycles in which a battery can be charged and discharged before losing efficiency. By looking closer into the nanostructured layers of silicon, the scientists realized the silicon shows important porosity with a grain-like structure in which lithium ions could travel at higher speeds compared to unstructured, amorphous silicon, explaining the increase in power. At the same time the presence of silicon channels along the Ta nanoparticle scaffolds allows the lithium ions to diffuse in the entire structure. On the other hand, the tantalum metal casing, while restraining swelling and improving structural integrity, also limited the overall capacity — for now.

However, this design is currently only at the stage of proof-of-concept, opening the door to numerous opportunities to improve capacity along with the increased power.

“It is a very open synthesis approach, there are many parameters you can play around,” commented Dr. Haro. “For example, we want to optimize the numbers of layers, their thickness, and replace tantalum metal with other materials.”

With this technique paving the way, it might very well be that the solution for future batteries, forecast to be omnipresent in our lives, will be found in nanoparticles.

Story Source:

 

Material provided by Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate UniversityNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Marta Haro, Vidyadhar Singh, Stephan Steinhauer, Evropi Toulkeridou, Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos, Mukhles Sowwan. Nanoscale Heterogeneity of Multilayered Si Anodes with Embedded Nanoparticle Scaffolds for Li-Ion BatteriesAdvanced Science, 2017; 1700180 DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700180

Large Emissions from the Electric Car (EV) Battery Makers – Tesla an ‘Eco-Villain’?


EV Battery Villans Elfordon-Nevs-700-394-ny-teknik

Electric power: When batteries are eco-villains in the production, according to a new report. Photo: Tomas Oneborg / SvD / TT

Huge hopes tied to electric cars as the solution to automotive climate problem. But the electric car batteries are eco-villains in the production. Several tons of carbon dioxide has been placed, even before the batteries leave the factory.

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute was commissioned by the Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Energy Agency investigated lithium-ion batteries climate impact from a life cycle perspective. There are batteries designed for electric vehicles included in the study. The two authors Lisbeth Dahllöf and Mia Romare has done a meta-study that is reviewed and compiled existing studies.

The report shows that the battery manufacturing leads to high emissions. For every kilowatt hour of storage capacity in the battery generated emissions of 150 to 200 kilos of carbon dioxide already in the factory. The researchers did not study individual bilmärkens batteries, how these produced or the electricity mix they use. But if we understand the great importance of play battery take an example: Two common electric cars on the market, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, the batteries about 30 kWh and 100 kWh.

Even when buying the car emissions have already occurred, corresponding to approximately 5.3 tons and 17.5 tons, the batteries of these sizes. The numbers can be difficult to relate to. As a comparison, a trip for one person round trip from Stockholm to New York by air causes the release of more than 600 kilograms of carbon dioxide, according to the UN organization ICAO calculation.

Another conclusion of the study is that about half the emissions arising from the production of raw materials and half the production of the battery factory. The mining accounts for only a small proportion of between 10-20 percent.

Read more: “The potential electric car the main advantage”

The calculation is based on the assumption that the electricity mix used in the battery factory consists of more than half of the fossil fuels. In Sweden, the power production is mainly of fossil-nuclear and hydropower why lower emissions had been achieved.

The study also concluded that emissions grow almost linearly with the size of the battery, even if it is pinched by the data in that field. It means that a battery of the Tesla-size contributes more than three times as much emissions as the Nissan Leaf size. It is a result that surprised Mia Romare.

– It should have been less linear as the electronics used is not increased to the same extent. But the battery cells are so sensitive as production looks today, she says.

– One conclusion is that you should not run around with unnecessarily large batteries, says Mia Romare

The authors emphasize that a large part of the study has been about finding out what data is available and find out what quality they are. They have in many cases been forced to conclude that it is difficult to compare existing studies together.

 

We’ve been frustrated, but it is also part of the result, says Lisbeth Dahllöf.

His colleague, Mats-Ola Larsson at IVL has made a calculation of how long you have to drive a petrol or diesel before it has released as much carbon dioxide as battery manufacturing has caused. The result was 2.7 years for a battery of the same size as the Nissan Leaf and 8.2 years for a battery of the Tesla-size, based on a series of assumptions (see box below).

– It’s great that companies and authorities for ambitious environmental policies and buying into climate-friendly cars. But these results show that one should consider not to choose an electric car with a bigger battery than necessary, he says, noting that politicians should also take this on in the design of instruments.

An obvious part to look at the life cycle analysis is recycling. The authors note that the characteristics of the batteries is the lack of the same, since there is no financial incentive to send batteries for recycling, as well as the volumes are still small.

Cobalt, nickel and copper are recovered but not the energy required to manufacture electrodes, says Mia Romare and points out that the point of recycling the resource rather than the reduction of carbon emissions.

Peter Kasche the report originator Energy Agency emphasizes the close of the linear relationship between the battery size and emissions is important.

– Somehow you really get to see so as to optimize the batteries. One should not run around with a lot of kilowatt hours unnecessarily. In some cases, a plug-in hybrid to be the optimum, in other cases a clean vehicle battery.

So counted IVL

Mats-Ola Larsson has made a number of assumptions in the calculation of emissions from a battery of the Nissan Leaf size and a battery of Tesla’s size takes 2.7 and 8.2 years to “run together into” a normal petrol or diesel:

The average emissions of new Swedish cars in 2016 were 126 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. The value has been adjusted to 130 because some of the cars that are classified as electric vehicles are plug-in hybrids, which sometimes runs on fossil fuels.

While adoption of petrol and diesel have 18 percent renewable fuels, which affect emissions.

Average Mileage per year is 1224 mil under Traffic Analysis.

Dendrite-free lithium metal anodes using Nitrogen-doped graphene matrix – Solves Safety & Power Challenges


Dendrite Free LI Anodes 590c50b37b0b0

 

 

Recently, Researchers in Tsinghua University have proposed a nitrogen-doped graphene matrix with densely and uniformly distributed lithiophilic functional groups for dendrite-free lithium metal anodes, appearing in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

Since lithium metal possesses an ultrahigh theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g-1) and the lowest negative electrochemical potential (-3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode), lithium metal has been regarded as the most promising electrode material for next-generation high-energy-density batteries. However, the application of lithium metal batteries is still not in sight. “Lithium dendrite growth has hindered the development of lithium metal anodes,” said Dr. Qiang Zhang, the corresponding author, a faculty at Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University. “Lithium dendrites that form during repeated lithium plating and stripping cycles can not only induce many ‘dead Li’ with irreversible capacity loss, but also cause internal short circuits in batteries and other hazardous issues.”

LI Dendrite separator“We found that a lithiophilic material with good metallic lithium affinity can guide the lithium metal nucleation. Therefore, designing a lithium-plating with a high surface area and lithiophilic surface makes sense for a safe and efficient ,” said Xiao-Ru Chen, an undergraduate student in Tsinghua University. “So we employed a nitrogen-doped graphene matrix with densely and uniformly distributed nitrogen containing to guide lithium metal nucleation and growth.”

“The nitrogen containing functional groups are lithiophilic sites, confirmed by our experimental and DFT calculation results. Lithium metal can plate with uniform nucleation during the charging process, followed by growth into dendrite-free morphology. While on the normal Cu foil-based anode, the nucleation sites are scattered, which may cause lithium dendrite growth more easily,” said Xiang Chen, a Ph.D. student at Tsinghua University.

With the lithiophilic nitrogen-containing functional groups, the N-doped graphene matrix can regulate the nucleation process of lithium electrodeposition. As a result, dendrite-free lithium metal deposits were obtained. Additionally, this matrix shows impressive electrochemical performance. The Coulombic efficiency of the N-doped graphene-based electrode at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2 and a cycle capacity of 1.0 mAh cm-2 can reach 98 percent for nearly 200 cycles.

“We have proposed a new strategy based on lithiophilic site-guided nucleation to settle the tough dendrite challenge in this publication,” said Qiang. “Further research is required to investigate and control the lithium nucleation in lithium metal batteries. We believe that the practical application of lithium anodes can be finally realized.” The control of the process of plating with a lithiophilic matrix has shed a new light on all -based batteries, such as Li-S, Li-O2 and future Li-ion batteries.

Explore further: New battery coating could improve smart phones and electric vehicles

More information: Rui Zhang et al. Lithiophilic Sites in Doped Graphene Guide Uniform Lithium Nucleation for Dendrite-Free Lithium Metal Anodes, Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2017). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201702099

 

NREL’s Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery Technology


Forge Nano II batterypower-669x272

NREL’s Agreement with Forge Nano helps fundamentally enhance lithium-ion battery safety, durability, and lifetime

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has entered into an exclusive license agreement with Forge Nano to commercialize NREL’s patented battery materials and systems capable of operating safely in high-stress environments. A particular feature of the technology is the encapsulation of materials with solid electrolyte coatings that can be designed to meet the increasingly demanding needs of any battery application.

These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte system, in which the electrodes are coated with a solid electrolyte layer. This layer minimizes the potential for the formation of an internal short circuit between electrodes to prevent “thermal runaway,” or the uncontrolled increase in battery cell temperature that can result in a fire or an explosion.

In addition, coating of the electrode materials reduces the stress on traditional polymer separators that are currently necessary components in commercial lithium-ion batteries and can allow for thinner separators designed for higher power devices. This advancement has the potential to reduce both the cost and weight of the battery device, while substantially increasing safety and lifetime.

Lab-scale testing of NREL’s hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte system has shown increased electrode durability and reliability without compromised electrochemical performance. “The cells are less likely to fail, even in demanding, real-world conditions like high temperatures and fast recycle rates,” said Ahmad Pesaran, whose team of engineers in NREL’s Energy Storage group invented the technology.

Forge Nano 2017 AAEAAQAAAAAAAAdtAAAAJDgzZGI5OTYxLTcwYjUtNDdiMy05Yjc5LWFkZDZlOWU1OTg3YwForge Nano, formerly PneumatiCoat Technologies, is a Colorado-based company specializing in the scale-up and manufacturing of cost-effective Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) encapsulated materials. Forge Nano presented its technology at the 2013 and 2017 NREL Industry Growth Forum, the nation’s premier clean energy investment event. A year later, NREL approached the company as a potential licensee after conducting a licensee search in the battery technology area.

“This license agreement will allow Forge Nano to offer further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented high-throughput ALD system that has already been successfully tested at the pilot scale and in large format pouch cells,” Paul Lichty, CEO of Forge Nano, said. “The incorporation of this technology into Forge Nano’s offering will lead to a substantial reduction in cost per unit energy of lithium-ion batteries.”

NREL has more than 800 technologies available for licensing. Companies interested in partnering to advance research on or commercialize renewable energy technologies can visit the EERE Energy Innovation Portal, which features descriptions of all renewable energy technologies funded by the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

NREL is the U.S. Department of Energy’s primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. NREL is operated for the Energy Department by The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

Visit NREL online at www.nrel.gov

To learn more about Forge Nano visit: Forge Nano

UT Austin’s and Goodenough’s New ‘Solid Electrolyte Battery’ ~ Stumps Researchers – Video


  • Lithium-Ion battery inventor 94 year old John Goodenough has stumped researchers evaluating his recent discovery and resulting claims.
  • Greater Energy Density
  • Faster/ Rapid Re-Charging
  • SAFE! Non-Exploding
  • Low Cost Materials
  • Low Cost to Manufacture

Is the discovery the answer to much needed Energy Storage for Renewable Energies? The Electric Vehicle (EVs) ?

Watch the Video and tell us what you think? Leave us your Comments!

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