New Catalyst Recycles Greenhouse Gases into Fuel and Hydrogen Gas: KAIST and Rice University

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       The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST

Scientists have taken a major step toward a circular carbon economy by developing a long-lasting, economical catalyst that recycles greenhouse gases into ingredients that can be used in fuel, hydrogen gas, and other chemicals. The results could be revolutionary in the effort to reverse global warming, according to the researchers. The study was published on February 14 in Science.

“We set out to develop an effective catalyst that can convert large amounts of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane without failure,” said Cafer T. Yavuz, paper author and associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and of chemistry at KAIST.

The catalyst, made from inexpensive and abundant nickel, magnesium, and molybdenum, initiates and speeds up the rate of reaction that converts carbon dioxide and methane into hydrogen gas. It can work efficiently for more than a month.

This conversion is called ‘dry reforming’, where harmful gases, such as carbon dioxide, are processed to produce more useful chemicals that could be refined for use in fuel, plastics, or even pharmaceuticals. It is an effective process, but it previously required rare and expensive metals such as platinum and rhodium to induce a brief and inefficient chemical reaction.

Other researchers had previously proposed nickel as a more economical solution, but carbon byproducts would build up and the surface nanoparticles would bind together on the cheaper metal, fundamentally changing the composition and geometry of the catalyst and rendering it useless.

“The difficulty arises from the lack of control on scores of active sites over the bulky catalysts surfaces because any refinement procedures attempted also change the nature of the catalyst itself,” Yavuz said.

The researchers produced nickel-molybdenum nanoparticles under a reductive environment in the presence of a single crystalline magnesium oxide. As the ingredients were heated under reactive gas, the nanoparticles moved on the pristine crystal surface seeking anchoring points. The resulting activated catalyst sealed its own high-energy active sites and permanently fixed the location of the nanoparticles — meaning that the nickel-based catalyst will not have a carbon build up, nor will the surface particles bind to one another. (Article continues below **)

Read More from Rice University: Rice reactor turns greenhouse gas into pure liquid fuel

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This schematic shows the electrolyzer developed at Rice to reduce carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, to valuable fuels. At left is a catalyst that selects for carbon dioxide and reduces it to a negatively charged formate, which is pulled through a gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the anion exchange membrane (AEM) into the central electrolyte. At the right, an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst generates positive protons from water and sends them through the cation exchange membrane (CEM). The ions recombine into formic acid or other products that are carried out of the system by deionized (DI) water and gas. Illustration by Chuan Xia and Demin Liu


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(** New catalyst recycles greenhouse gases into fuel and hydrogen gas continues)

“It took us almost a year to understand the underlying mechanism,” said first author Youngdong Song, a graduate student in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at KAIST. “Once we studied all the chemical events in detail, we were shocked.”

The researchers dubbed the catalyst Nanocatalysts on Single Crystal Edges (NOSCE). The magnesium-oxide nanopowder comes from a finely structured form of magnesium oxide, where the molecules bind continuously to the edge. There are no breaks or defects in the surface, allowing for uniform and predictable reactions.

“Our study solves a number of challenges the catalyst community faces,” Yavuz said. “We believe the NOSCE mechanism will improve other inefficient catalytic reactions and provide even further savings of greenhouse gas emissions.”

This work was supported, in part, by the Saudi-Aramco-KAIST CO2 Management Center and the National Research Foundation of Korea.

Other contributors include Ercan Ozdemir, Sreerangappa Ramesh, Aldiar Adishev, and Saravanan Subramanian, all of whom are affiliated with the Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability at KAIST; Aadesh Harale, Mohammed Albuali, Bandar Abdullah Fadhel, and Aqil Jamal, all of whom are with the Research and Development Center in Saudi Arabia; and Dohyun Moon and Sun Hee Choi, both of whom are with the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory in Korea. Ozdemir is also affiliated with the Institute of Nanotechnology at the Gebze Technical University in Turkey; Fadhel and Jamal are also affiliated with the Saudi-Armco-KAIST CO2 Management Center in Korea.

Story Source:

Materials provided by The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Youngdong Song, Ercan Ozdemir, Sreerangappa Ramesh, Aldiar Adishev, Saravanan Subramanian, Aadesh Harale, Mohammed Albuali, Bandar Abdullah Fadhel, Aqil Jamal, Dohyun Moon, Sun Hee Choi, Cafer T. Yavuz. Dry reforming of methane by stable Ni–Mo nanocatalysts on single-crystalline MgOScience, 2020; 367 (6479): 777 DOI: 10.1126/science.aav2412

QLEDs meet wearable devices

QDLED 08_Bulovic_QDs_inLiquidSolutionsThe scientific team, from the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and Seoul National University, has developed an ultra-thin wearable quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs).

The electronic tattoo is based on current quantum dot (QLED) technology. Colloidal quantum dot (QLED’s) have attracted great attention as next generation displays.

The (QDs) have unique properties such as the color tunability, photo/air stability, and are printability on various substrates. The device is paper thin and can be applied to human skin like a sticker.

The team developed the high performance red, green, and blue QLED array, whose resolutions approach 2,500 pixels per inch. This resolution is far superior to other light emitting devices and displays on the market today including ones used in the latest smartphones. The technique is readily scalable over large area.

Devices are adaptable to deformed states and thereby built on the unconventional curvilinear substrates including surfaces of various objects. Further mechanical deformations, such as stretching or wrinkling, are also adopted in this technology, which enables QLEDs on the .

This breakthrough highlights new possibilities for integrating high-definition full color displays in wearable electronics.

The article was published in Nature Communications in May, 2015.

Explore further: Full-color organic light-emitting diodes with photoresist technology for organic semiconductors

More information: Wearable red-green-blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing, Nature Communications,

KAIST Lab team develops Hyper-stretchable Elastic-Composite Energy Harvester: Applications: Flexible Electronics

Elastic Energy 041415 akaistresearA research team led by Professor Keon Jae Lee of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has developed a hyper-stretchable elastic-composite energy harvesting device called a nanogenerator.

Flexible electronics have come into the market and are enabling new technologies like flexible displays in mobile phone, , and the Internet of Things (IoTs). However, is the degree of flexibility enough for most applications? For many flexible devices, elasticity is a very important issue. For example, wearable/biomedical devices and electronic skins (e-skins) should stretch to conform to arbitrarily curved surfaces and moving body parts such as joints, diaphragms, and tendons. They must be able to withstand the repeated and prolonged mechanical stresses of stretching. In particular, the development of elastic energy devices is regarded as critical to establish power supplies in stretchable applications.

Although several researchers have explored diverse stretchable electronics, due to the absence of the appropriate device structures and correspondingly electrodes, researchers have not developed ultra-stretchable and fully-reversible energy conversion devices properly.

Recently, researchers from KAIST and Seoul National University (SNU) have collaborated and demonstrated a facile methodology to obtain a high-performance and hyper-stretchable elastic-composite generator (SEG) using very long silver nanowire-based stretchable electrodes. Their stretchable piezoelectric generator can harvest mechanical energy to produce high power output (~4 V) with large elasticity (~250%) and excellent durability (over 104 cycles). These noteworthy results were achieved by the non-destructive stress- relaxation ability of the unique electrodes as well as the good piezoelectricity of the device components. The new SEG can be applied to a wide-variety of wearable energy-harvesters to transduce biomechanical-stretching energy from the body (or machines) to electrical .

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Top row shows schematics of hyper-stretchable elastic-composite generator (SEG) enabled by very long silver nanowire-based stretchable electrodes. The bottom row shows the SEG energy harvester stretched by human hands over 200% strain. Credit: KAIST 

Professor Lee said, “This exciting approach introduces an ultra-stretchable piezoelectric generator. It can open avenues for power supplies in universal wearable and biomedical applications as well as self-powered ultra-stretchable electronics.”

This result was published online in the March issue of Advanced Materials, which is entitled “A Hyper-Stretchable Elastic-Composite Energy Harvester.”

Explore further: Nanoengineers develop basis for electronics that stretch at the molecular level

Graphene Batteries – Graphene … The Wonder Material !

Battery basics

1-Graphene Eneloop-battery-design-img_assist-300x290Batteries serve as a mobile source of power, allowing electricity-operated devices to work without being directly plugged into an outlet. While many types of batteries exist, the basic concept by which they function remains similar: one or more electrochemical cells convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery is usually made of a metal or plastic casing, containing a positive terminal (a cathode), a negative terminal (an anode) and electrolytes that allow ions to move between them. A separator (a permeable polymeric membrane) creates a barrier between the anode and cathode to prevent electrical short circuits while also allowing the transport of ionic charge carriers that are needed to close the circuit during the passage of current. Finally, a collector is used to conduct the charge outside the battery, through the connected device.

When the circuit between the two terminals is completed, the battery produces electricity through a series of reactions. The anode experiences an oxidation reaction in which two or more ions from the electrolyte combine with the anode to produce a compound, releasing electrons. At the same time, the cathode goes through a reduction reaction in which the cathode substance, ions and free electrons combine into compounds. Simply put, the anode reaction produces electrons while the reaction in the cathode absorbs them and from that process electricity is produced. The battery will continue to produce electricity until electrodes run out of necessary substance for creation of reactions.

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Battery types and characteristics

Batteries are divided into two main types: primary and secondary. Primary batteries (disposable), are used once and rendered useless as the electrode materials in them irreversibly change during charging. Common examples are the zinc-carbon battery as well as the alkaline battery used in toys, flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary batteries (rechargeable), can be discharged and recharged multiple times as the original composition of the electrodes is able to regain functionality. Examples include lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics.

Batteries come in various shapes and sizes for countless different purposes. Different kinds of batteries display varied advantages and disadvantages. Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are relatively low in energy density and are used where long life, high discharge rate and economical price are key. They can be found in video cameras and power tools, among other uses. NiCd batteries contain toxic metals and are environmentally unfriendly. Nickel-Metal hydride batteries have a higher energy density than NiCd ones, but also a shorter cycle-life. Applications include mobile phones and laptops. Lead-Acid batteries are heavy and play an important role in large power applications, where weight is not of the essence but economic price is. They are prevalent in uses like hospital equipment and emergency lighting.

Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are used where high-energy and minimal weight are important, but the technology is fragile and a protection circuit is required to assure safety. Applications include cell phones and various kinds of computers. Lithium Ion Polymer (Li-ion polymer) batteries are mostly found in mobile phones. They are lightweight and enjoy a slimmer form than that of Li-ion batteries. They are also usually safer and have longer lives.  However, they seem to be less prevalent since Li-ion batteries are cheaper to manufacture and have higher energy density.

Graphene and batteries

Graphene, a sheet of carbon atoms bound together in a honeycomb lattice pattern, is hugely recognized as a “wonder material” due to the myriad of astonishing attributes it holds. It is a potent conductor of electrical and thermal energy, extremely lightweight chemically inert, and flexible with a large surface area. It is also considered eco-friendly and sustainable, with unlimited possibilities for numerous applications.


In the field of batteries, conventional battery electrode materials (and prospective ones) are significantly improved when enhanced with graphene. Graphene can make batteries light, durable and suitable for high capacity energy storage, as well as shorten charging times. It will extend the battery’s life-time, which is negatively linked to the amount of carbon that is coated on the material or added to electrodes to achieve conductivity, and graphene adds conductivity without requiring the amounts of carbon that are used in conventional batteries.

Graphene can improve such battery attributes as energy density and form in various ways. Li-ion batteries can be enhanced by introducing graphene to the battery’s anode and capitalizing on the material’s conductivity and large surface area traits to achieve morphological optimization and performance.

It has also been discovered that creating hybrid materials can also be useful for achieving battery enhancement. A hybrid of Vanadium Oxide (VO2) and graphene, for example, can be used on Li-ion cathodes and grant quick charge and discharge as well as large charge cycle durability. In this case, VO2 offers high energy capacity but poor electrical conductivity, which can be solved by using graphene as a sort of a structural “backbone” on which to attach VO2 – creating a hybrid material that has both heightened capacity and excellent conductivity.

Another example is LFP ( Lithium Iron Phosphate) batteries, that is a kind of rechargeable Li-ion battery. It has a lower energy density than other Li-ion batteries but a higher power density (an indicator of of the rate at which energy can be supplied by the battery). Enhancing LFP cathodes with graphene allowed the batteries to be lightweight, charge much faster than Li-ion batteries and have a greater capacity than conventional LFP batteries.

In addition to revolutionizing the battery market, combined use of graphene batteries and supercapacitors could yield amazing results, like the noted concept of improving the electric car’s driving range and efficiency.

Batteries and Supercapacitors

While there are certain types of batteries that are able to store a large amount of energy, they are very large, heavy and release energy slowly. Capacitors, on the other hand, are able to charge and discharge quickly but hold much less energy than a battery. The use of graphene in this area, though, presents exciting new possibilities for energy storage, with high charge and discharge rates and even economical affordability. Graphene-improved performance thereby blurs the conventional line of distinction between supercapacitors and batteries.


Commercial Graphene-enhanced Battery Products

In June 2014, US based Vorbeck Materials announced the Vor-Power strap, a lightweight flexible power source that can be attached to any existing bag strap to enable a mobile charging station (via 2 USB and one micro USB ports). the product weighs 450 grams, provides 7,200 mAh and is probably the world’s first graphene-enhanced battery.


In May 2014, American company Angstron Materials rolled out several new graphene products. The products, said to become available roughly around the end of 2014, include a line of graphene-enhanced anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries. The battery materials were named “NANO GCA” and are supposed to result in a high capacity anode, capable of supporting hundreds of charge/discharge cycles by combining high capacity silicon with mechanically reinforcing and conductive graphene.

Developments are also made in the field of graphene batteries for electric vehicles, such as Graphene Nanochem and Sync R&D’s October 2014 plan to co-develop graphene-enhanced Li-ion batteries for electric buses, under the Electric Bus 1 Malaysia program. In August 2014, Tesla suggested the development of a “new battery technology” that will almost double the capacity for their Model S electric car. It is unofficial but reasonable to assume graphene involvement in this battery. UK based Perpetuus Carbon Group and OXIS Energy agreed in June 2014 to co-develop graphene-based electrodes for Lithium-Sulphur batteries, which will offer improved energy density and possibly enable electric cars to drive a much longer distance on a single battery charge.

Another interesting venture, announced in September 2014 by US based Graphene 3D Labs, regards plans to print 3D graphene batteries. These graphene-based batteries can potentially outperform current commercial batteries as well as be tailored to various shapes and sizes.

Other prominent companies which declared intentions to develop and commercialize graphene-enhanced battery products are: Grafoid, SiNode together with AZ Electronic Materials, XG Sciences, Graphene Batteries together with CVD Equipment and CalBattery.

Exciting research in the field of Graphene Batteries

The field of graphene-enhanced batteries is brimming with activity and research, striving to develop and improve materials. One example of such research is the development of better performing and cheaper Li-ion batteries made by researchers from the University of Southern California in April 2014. The anode was made from silicon and the cathode was made of sulfur powder coated with graphene oxide. Another example is Wuhan University of Technology’s development of a new graphene-based high-energy electrode for Li-ion batteries in August 2014, using a 3D-crumpled graphene that encapsulates Nickel-Sulfide.

The Korean KAIST institute developed in August 2014 a new method of fabricating defect-free graphene. This enabled them to develop a promising high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries. Also in August 2014, researchers from Rice University developed a new chemical process that can be used to create a tough, ultra-light foam (called GO-0.5BN) that is made from two 2D ,materials: graphene oxide and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) platelets. This foam can serve as a structural component in applications such as electrodes for batteries, supercapacitors and gas absorption material.

In April 2014, researchers from the University of Southern California developed better performing and cheaper Li-ion batteries. The anode in these batteries is made from Silicon (and is said to be three times more powerful and longer lasting compared to conventional graphite anodes). The cathode is made of sulfur powder coated with graphene oxide. the GO coating seems to solve sulfur’s poor conductivity and cyclability issues, resulting in newly developed cathodes that offer 5 times the capacity of commercial ones.

“Graphene … The Wonder Material!”

Further reading

Tough Textile Batteries

With the launch of Google Glass and the Samsung Galaxy Gear wristwatch this year, wearable electronics have moved from abstract concepts to tangible products. To integrate these electronic devices seamlessly into clothing, watchbands, and backpacks, some engineers are developing flexible, powerful textile-based batteries. Now researchers in South Korea have built one of the most durable wearable batteries to date on polyester fabric (Nano Lett. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/nl403860k). The battery, which the researchers sewed into a shirt, can be folded 10,000 times without losing function.

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Most attempts to make textile batteries have had limited success, says materials scientist Jang Wook Choi of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST).


Fashionable Batteries            

            South Korean researchers fabricated lithium ion batteries on polyester cloth and then sewed them into a hoodie (left) and a watch wristband (right). The bottom cartoons show the shape of the batteries used in the shirt (left) and wristband (right).

The problem has been finding battery materials that can retain high function while being bent repeatedly. For example, batteries with metal foils as electrodes can bend only a few times before breaking. Electrodes made by dipping cloth in nanoparticle inks, such as solutions of carbon nanotubes, are more durable than the foils, but the electrical resistance of these cloth electrodes is relatively high, which limits the size of the batteries and the total amount of energy they can store.

Polyester Electrode            

            In a new textile battery, researchers fabricated electrodes by electroplating nickel onto polyester fabric (top, center). After adding the nickel layer, they completed the electrode by coating the fabric with a lithium electrode composite using a polyurethane binder (top, right). The nickel coated the individual fibers of polyester yarn, allowing the fabric to retain most of its mechanical properties (bottom, right). The electrode composite then coated each strand of yarn in the fabric. (below)

Textile 2 1384358970137To solve these challenges, Choi rethought the entire design of textile batteries, starting with the electrode. He turned to nickel, because it is a fantastic conductor. To make a flexible, but still highly conductive metal electrode, Choi came up with the idea of electroplating nickel onto polyester fabric. The process is simple, and the nickel-coated textile retains the mechanical properties of the fabric. The electrodes had a very low electrical resistance, about 0.35 ohms per square, comparable to that of a pure nickel metal foil.

The other critical component is the polymer used to bind the anode and cathode materials onto the electrodes in the battery. If this binder material fails, the battery will peel apart and stop functioning. Choi found that polyurethane had the right mechanical properties. To complete the battery, Choi’s group used conventional lithium-ion battery materials for the anodes and cathodes.

Choi’s group put the polyester-based batteries through their paces. Other groups have demonstrated bending and flexing of batteries, but the KAIST team thought the real test of mechanical durability would be to fold the device with firm creases. They powered an array of light-emitting diodes with the battery and folded it repeatedly. After 10,000 folding and unfolding cycles, the textile battery still worked. Batteries built with aluminum foil electrodes broke after three cycles and stopped working altogether after 100 cycles.

The KAIST group showed that their textile batteries can be sewn into a sweatshirt and a watchband. They also integrated the batteries with flexible solar cells so the batteries could recharge without needing to be removed from the clothing. “It’s quite comfortable to wear,” Choi says, adding that the battery is sealed so people could wash the fabric with the battery still attached.

“I’m really impressed,” says Yi Cui, a battery researcher at Stanford University. The KAIST group has successfully put their batteries through much harsher mechanical tests than others have been able to, he says.

The next step, Cui says, is to use battery materials that can store more energy to further improve the performance. So far, the KAIST team has used lithium iron phosphate for the cathode and lithium titanium oxide for the anode. Cui says that using a carbon anode material in the textile battery would increase the battery’s voltage, which determines how much power the device can deliver and how fast it can recharge. The voltage of the textile battery is about 2.5 V, and Choi says it should be about 3.8 V for practical applications.

Indeed, Choi’s group is experimenting with other materials, in collaboration with an unnamed South Korean battery maker that is interested in scaling up production of the wearable batteries.

Chemical & Engineering News
ISSN 0009-2347
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society

Unique mussel wet-adhesion improves lithium-ion battery performance

By Michael Berger. Copyright © Nanowerk

QDOTS imagesCAKXSY1K 8 (Nanowerk Spotlight) Binders are used in fabricating  lithium-ion batteries to hold the active material particles together and in  contact with the current collectors. The characteristics of the binder material  used are critical for the performance of the battery. The anode is a critical component for storing energy in  lithium-ion batteries. Silicon has recently attracted considerable attention as  an anode material in lithium battery technology due to its unparalleled  capacity, which is about ten-fold higher than those of the conventional graphite  anodes. Despite the excellent capacity, however, silicon suffers from short  cycle life. The cycle life of silicon is typically less than a couple hundred of  charge-discharge cycles limiting its application. The reason for the limited cycle life is poor film stability  because silicon – during its reaction with lithium ions – undergoes a very large  volume expansion by up to 300% during charge and discharge. And this is where the binders come into play. To minimize the  side effects of the large volume expansion, the binders included in the  electrode films (both cathodes and anodes) play a critical role in maintaining  stable electrode structures over a large number of cycles. Although intensive  research related to binders has been performed, the success has been limited. In an effort to make a highly functional binder, researchers at  the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), led by associate  professors Jang Wook Choi and Haeshin Lee, have developed polymers conjugated with  mussel-inspired functional groups (catechol groups). Catechol was found to play  a decisive role in the exceptional wetness-resistant adhesion. The results have been published in the [date] online edition of Advanced Materials (“Mussel-inspired Adhesive Binders for High  Performance Silicon Nanoparticle Anodes in Li-Ion Batteries”),  first-authored by Myung-Hyun Ryou. The results suggests that the binder plays a  critical role in the operation of pure silicon and silicon-graphite composite  anodes.

id28250Catechol conjugated polymer binders and Si anode structure. a)  Mussel; the inset shows the chemical structure of dopamine inspired from mussel  foot proteins. b) Structural formula of Alg-C and PAA-C alongside a simplified  structure of a conjugated polymer binder; the black solid line represents the  polymer backbone with carboxylic acid functional groups attached and red circles  represent catecholmoieties conjugated to the backbone. c) A graphical  illustration of the Si NP anode structure. (Reprinted with permission from  Wiley-VCH Verlag

Due to significantly enhanced adhesion, the silicon electrodes  become much more stable, enabling to improve their cycle lives significantly,  i.e. several times compared to previous polymeric binders.  Mussel feet show exceptionally strong holdfast on wet surfaces.  They preserve strong adhesion on the rock surfaces even under fierce sea wave  action. Such exceptional wet-adhesion is nowadays giving clever ideas for making  breakthrough progress in a variety of technological areas. For instance,  researchers have used “mussel glue” to  fabricate DNA chips for diagnostics and research or generally used the  adhesive properties of mussels to  develop new adhesive materials. “Although the battery community has noticed the importance of  polymeric binders in the emerging silicon battery anodes, previous binders have  shown limited success,” Choi tells Nanowerk. “In comparison, the mussel-inspired  binders that we used in our work enhance the electrode film stability remarkably  and thus improve the cycle life.” He points out that the wetness-resistant adhesion found in  mussel glue could be very useful for battery operations because the battery  components are also in contact with each other in liquid environments. Choi notes that, having taken note of the recent studies that  indicated the importance of the rigidity of polymer backbone in retaining the  capacity of the silicon electrodes during cycling, the team conjugated adhesive  catechol functional groups to well-known poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and alginate  backbones with high Young’s moduli. “As for the morphology of the active material, among various  silicon nanostructures, we chose silicon nanoparticles on account of their  capability for mass production,” he says. “The mussel-inspired binders endow  silicon nanoparticles electrodes with markedly improved battery performance  compared to those based on other existing binders.” Silicon has already been partially included as an anode material  in certain battery applications and is expected to increase its presence in  future applications. Thus, the binder developed by the KAIST team would  accelerate and expand the use of silicon in future lithium-ion batteries. “For delivery of the mussel-inspired binders into real markets,  further electrode optimization might be required perhaps under collaborations  with battery industries,” says Choi. “Moreover, this mussel-inspired binder  should be readily applicable to other lithium-ion battery electrodes that  undergo significant volume change during cycling because the wetness resistant  catecholic adhesion proved to be effective with various substrates.”